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Found 13 matching records:

Displaying record number 18

HXB2 Location  Gag(20-28)   Gag Epitope Map
View variants at this location
Epitope RLRPGGKKK   Epitope Alignment
Variants
RLRPGGKKc   escape documented in this paper
Species (MHC/HLA human(A*03)

Variant Details

Showing all: 1 variant(s).


Variant ID.  357
Epitope Seq.  RLRPGGKKK
Variant Seq.  RLRPGGKKc
Mutations K/C
Epitope Location K9C
HXB2 Location K28C
Mutation Type E: escape documented in this paper
Method Chromium-release assay
Note HLA-identical siblings infected with the same batch. One responded to RLRPGGKKK, the non-responder carried RLRPGGKKc. There was no CTL response to this variant and the variant was not recognized by CTLs.

References

Goulder1997 P. J. Goulder, A. K. Sewell, D. G. Lalloo, D. A. Price, J. A. Whelan, J. Evans, G. P. Taylor, G. Luzzi, P. Giangrande, R. E. Phillips, and A. J. McMichael. Patterns of Immunodominance in HIV-1-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses in Two Human Histocompatibility Leukocyte Antigens (HLA)-Identical Siblings with HLA-A*0201 Are Influenced by Epitope Mutation. J. Exp. Med., 8:1423-1433, 1997. Primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is controlled principally by HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) to a steady- state level of virus load, which strongly influences the ultimate rate of progression to disease. Epitope selection by CTL may be an important determinant of the degree of immune control over the virus. This report describes the CTL responses of two HLA-identical hemophiliac brothers who were exposed to identical batches of Factor VIII and became seropositive within 10 wk of one another. Both have HLA-A*0201. The CTL responses of the two siblings were very dissimilar, one donor making strong responses to two epitopes within p17 Gag (HLA-A*0201-restricted SLYNTVATL and HLA-A3-restricted RLRPGGKKK). The sibling responded to neither epitope, but made strong responses to two epitopes presented by HLA-B7. This was not the result of differences in presentation of the epitopes. However, mutations in both immunodominant epitopes of the p17 Gag responder were seen in proviral sequences of the nonresponder. We then documented the CTL responses to two HLA-A*0201-restricted epitopes, in Gag (SLYNTVATL) and Pol (ILKEPVHGV) in 22 other HIV-infected donors with HLA-A*0201. The majority (71\%) generated responses to the Gag epitope. In the 29\% of donors failing to respond to the Gag epitope in standard assays, there was evidence of low frequency memory CTL responses using peptide stimulation of PBMC, and most of these donors also showed mutations in or around the Gag epitope. PubMed ID: 9126923. Show all entries for this paper.

Goulder1997e P. Goulder, D. Price, M. Nowak, S. Rowland-Jones, R. Phillips, and A. McMichael. Co-Evolution of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses. Immunol. Rev., 159:17-29, 1997. PubMed ID: 9416500. Show all entries for this paper.


Displaying record number 49

HXB2 Location  Gag(24-35)   Gag Epitope Map
View variants at this location
Epitope GGKKKYKLKHIV   Epitope Alignment
Variants
GGKKKYKLKHIi   susceptible form
GrKKKYKLKHIV   escape documented in this paper
GrKKKYKfKHIV   escape documented in this paper
rGKKrYKLKHIV   observed variant
GGKKqYrLKHIV   observed variant
GGKKKYqLKHIV   observed variant
GGKKKYaLKHli   observed variant
Species (MHC/HLA human(B8)

Variant Details

Showing all: 7 variant(s).


Variant ID.  373
Epitope Seq.  GGKKKYKLKHIV
Variant Seq.  GGKKKYKLKHIi
Mutations V/I
Epitope Location V12I
HXB2 Location V35I
Mutation Type SF: susceptible form
Note This variant was recognized as efficiently as the wt epitope by patient CTLs.


Variant ID.  374
Epitope Seq.  GGKKKYKLKHIV
Variant Seq.  GrKKKYKLKHIV
Mutations G/R
Epitope Location G2R
HXB2 Location G25R
Mutation Type E: escape documented in this paper
Note This variant failed to be recognized by CTLs and failed to induce target specific lysis.


Variant ID.  375
Epitope Seq.  GGKKKYKLKHIV
Variant Seq.  GrKKKYKfKHIV
Mutations G/R L/F
Epitope Location G2R L8F
HXB2 Location G25R L31F
Mutation Type E: escape documented in this paper
Note This variant failed to be recognized by CTLs and failed to induce target specific lysis.


Variant ID.  376
Epitope Seq.  GGKKKYKLKHIV
Variant Seq.  rGKKrYKLKHIV
Mutations G/R K/R
Epitope Location G1R K5R
HXB2 Location G24R K28R
Mutation Type OV: observed variant
Note Previously published variants of this epitope.


Variant ID.  377
Epitope Seq.  GGKKKYKLKHIV
Variant Seq.  GGKKqYrLKHIV
Mutations K/Q K/R
Epitope Location K5Q K7R
HXB2 Location K28Q K30R
Mutation Type OV: observed variant
Note Previously published variants of this epitope.


Variant ID.  378
Epitope Seq.  GGKKKYKLKHIV
Variant Seq.  GGKKKYqLKHIV
Mutations K/Q
Epitope Location K7Q
HXB2 Location K30Q
Mutation Type OV: observed variant
Note Previously published variants of this epitope.


Variant ID.  379
Epitope Seq.  GGKKKYKLKHIV
Variant Seq.  GGKKKYaLKHli
Mutations I/L V/I K/A
Epitope Location I11L V12I K7A
HXB2 Location I34L V35I K30A
Mutation Type OV: observed variant
Note Previously published variants of this epitope.

References

Goulder1997e P. Goulder, D. Price, M. Nowak, S. Rowland-Jones, R. Phillips, and A. McMichael. Co-Evolution of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses. Immunol. Rev., 159:17-29, 1997. PubMed ID: 9416500. Show all entries for this paper.

Phillips1991 R. E. Phillips, S. Rowland-Jones, D. F. Nixon, F. M. Gotch, J. P. Edwards, A. O. Ogunlesi, J. G. Elvin, J. A. Rothbard, C. R. Bangham, C. R. Rizza, and A. J. McMichael. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Genetic Variation That Can Escape Cytotoxic T Cell Recognition. Nature, 354:453-459, 1991. Fluctuations in the specificity of cytotoxic T-cells for HIV were correlated with variability in proviral gag (DNA) epitope sequences. PubMed ID: 1721107. Show all entries for this paper.


Displaying record number 97

HXB2 Location  Gag(77-85)   Gag Epitope Map
View variants at this location
Epitope SLYNTVATL   Epitope Alignment
Variants
SLhNaVAvL   escape documented in this paper
SLfNTVATL   escape documented in this paper
SLYNTiAvL   susceptible form
SLhNTVATL   escape documented in this paper
SLlNTVATL   observed variant
SLYNTVAvL   observed variant
SLYNTiATL   observed variant
SLsNTiATL   observed variant
SLfNTVAvL   observed variant
Epitope Name SL9
Species (MHC/HLA human(A*02:01)

Variant Details

Showing all: 9 variant(s).


Variant ID.  358
Epitope Seq.  SLYNTVATL
Variant Seq.  SLhNaVAvL
Mutations Y/H T/A T/V
Epitope Location Y3H T5A T8V
HXB2 Location Y79H T81A T84V
Mutation Type E: escape documented in this paper
Method Chromium-release assay
Note HLA-identical siblings infected with the same batch. One responded to SLYNTVATL, the non-responder carried SLhNaVAvL. There was no CTL response to this variant.


Variant ID.  359
Epitope Seq.  SLYNTVATL
Variant Seq.  SLfNTVATL
Mutations Y/F
Epitope Location Y3F
HXB2 Location Y79F
Mutation Type E: escape documented in this paper
Method Chromium-release assay
Note A subject went to SLYNTVATL responder to non-responder which coincided with a switch to the variant epitope. The variant had poor CTL recognition and there was no peptide-specific CTLs generated upon stimulation of PBMCs.


Variant ID.  360
Epitope Seq.  SLYNTVATL
Variant Seq.  SLYNTiAvL
Mutations V/I T/V
Epitope Location V6I T8V
HXB2 Location V82I T84V
Mutation Type SF: susceptible form
Method Chromium-release assay
Note Variant was recognized by CTLs to a similar level as the wt.


Variant ID.  361
Epitope Seq.  SLYNTVATL
Variant Seq.  SLhNTVATL
Mutations Y/H
Epitope Location Y3H
HXB2 Location Y79H
Mutation Type E: escape documented in this paper
Method Chromium-release assay
Note Variant was not recognized by CTLs.


Variant ID.  362
Epitope Seq.  SLYNTVATL
Variant Seq.  SLlNTVATL
Mutations Y/L
Epitope Location Y3L
HXB2 Location Y79L
Mutation Type OV: observed variant
Note Variant was found in one epitope responder in 6% of the clones.


Variant ID.  363
Epitope Seq.  SLYNTVATL
Variant Seq.  SLYNTVAvL
Mutations T/V
Epitope Location T8V
HXB2 Location T84V
Mutation Type OV: observed variant
Note Variant was found in one epitope responder in 10% of the clones.


Variant ID.  364
Epitope Seq.  SLYNTVATL
Variant Seq.  SLYNTiATL
Mutations V/I
Epitope Location V6I
HXB2 Location V82I
Mutation Type OV: observed variant
Note Variant was found in one epitope responder in 9% of the clones.


Variant ID.  365
Epitope Seq.  SLYNTVATL
Variant Seq.  SLsNTiATL
Mutations Y/S V/I
Epitope Location Y3S V6I
HXB2 Location Y79S V82I
Mutation Type OV: observed variant
Note Variant was found in one epitope non-responder in 10% of the clones.


Variant ID.  366
Epitope Seq.  SLYNTVATL
Variant Seq.  SLfNTVAvL
Mutations Y/F T/V
Epitope Location Y3F T8V
HXB2 Location Y79F T84V
Mutation Type OV: observed variant
Note Variant was found in two epitope non-responders in 25% and 38% of the clones, respectively.

References

Goulder1997 P. J. Goulder, A. K. Sewell, D. G. Lalloo, D. A. Price, J. A. Whelan, J. Evans, G. P. Taylor, G. Luzzi, P. Giangrande, R. E. Phillips, and A. J. McMichael. Patterns of Immunodominance in HIV-1-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses in Two Human Histocompatibility Leukocyte Antigens (HLA)-Identical Siblings with HLA-A*0201 Are Influenced by Epitope Mutation. J. Exp. Med., 8:1423-1433, 1997. Primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is controlled principally by HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) to a steady- state level of virus load, which strongly influences the ultimate rate of progression to disease. Epitope selection by CTL may be an important determinant of the degree of immune control over the virus. This report describes the CTL responses of two HLA-identical hemophiliac brothers who were exposed to identical batches of Factor VIII and became seropositive within 10 wk of one another. Both have HLA-A*0201. The CTL responses of the two siblings were very dissimilar, one donor making strong responses to two epitopes within p17 Gag (HLA-A*0201-restricted SLYNTVATL and HLA-A3-restricted RLRPGGKKK). The sibling responded to neither epitope, but made strong responses to two epitopes presented by HLA-B7. This was not the result of differences in presentation of the epitopes. However, mutations in both immunodominant epitopes of the p17 Gag responder were seen in proviral sequences of the nonresponder. We then documented the CTL responses to two HLA-A*0201-restricted epitopes, in Gag (SLYNTVATL) and Pol (ILKEPVHGV) in 22 other HIV-infected donors with HLA-A*0201. The majority (71\%) generated responses to the Gag epitope. In the 29\% of donors failing to respond to the Gag epitope in standard assays, there was evidence of low frequency memory CTL responses using peptide stimulation of PBMC, and most of these donors also showed mutations in or around the Gag epitope. PubMed ID: 9126923. Show all entries for this paper.

Goulder1997e P. Goulder, D. Price, M. Nowak, S. Rowland-Jones, R. Phillips, and A. McMichael. Co-Evolution of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses. Immunol. Rev., 159:17-29, 1997. PubMed ID: 9416500. Show all entries for this paper.


Displaying record number 230

HXB2 Location  Gag(253-267)   Gag Epitope Map
View variants at this location
Epitope NPPIPVGEIYKRWII   Epitope Alignment
Variants
NPPIPVGdIYKRWII   susceptible form
Species (MHC/HLA human(B8)

Variant Details

Showing all: 1 variant(s).


Variant ID.  380
Epitope Seq.  NPPIPVGEIYKRWII
Variant Seq.  NPPIPVGdIYKRWII
Mutations E/D
Epitope Location E8D
HXB2 Location E260D
Mutation Type SF: susceptible form
Note This variant was recognized by patient CTLs, but the wt epitope was not recognized, indicating that the CTLs tested were of different population than those raised against the wt epitope.

References

Goulder1997e P. Goulder, D. Price, M. Nowak, S. Rowland-Jones, R. Phillips, and A. McMichael. Co-Evolution of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses. Immunol. Rev., 159:17-29, 1997. PubMed ID: 9416500. Show all entries for this paper.

Phillips1991 R. E. Phillips, S. Rowland-Jones, D. F. Nixon, F. M. Gotch, J. P. Edwards, A. O. Ogunlesi, J. G. Elvin, J. A. Rothbard, C. R. Bangham, C. R. Rizza, and A. J. McMichael. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Genetic Variation That Can Escape Cytotoxic T Cell Recognition. Nature, 354:453-459, 1991. Fluctuations in the specificity of cytotoxic T-cells for HIV were correlated with variability in proviral gag (DNA) epitope sequences. PubMed ID: 1721107. Show all entries for this paper.


Displaying record number 283

HXB2 Location  Gag(263-272)   Gag Epitope Map
View variants at this location
Epitope KRWIIMGLNK   Epitope Alignment
Variants
KkWIIMGLNK   diminished HLA binding or increased off-rate; escape documented in this paper
KRWIIiGLNK   escape documented in this paper
KRWIIlGLNK   susceptible form
KkWIIlGLNK   escape documented in this paper
KRWIIMGmNK   observed variant
Species (MHC/HLA human(B27)

Variant Details

Showing all: 5 variant(s).


Variant ID.  367
Epitope Seq.  KRWIIMGLNK
Variant Seq.  KkWIIMGLNK
Mutations R/K
Epitope Location R2K
HXB2 Location R264K
Mutation Type DHB: diminished HLA binding or increased off-rate
E: escape documented in this paper
Method Chromium-release assay, HLA binding
Note Two patients switched to this epitope form during a rapid decline to AIDS. The switch results in severely diminished binding to the B27 and abrogated recognition by CTLs. The switch coincided with rapid CD4 count decline and a rapid rise in viral load. This escape variant is not found in B*2705 negative patients.


Variant ID.  368
Epitope Seq.  KRWIIMGLNK
Variant Seq.  KRWIIiGLNK
Mutations M/I
Epitope Location M6I
HXB2 Location M268I
Mutation Type E: escape documented in this paper
Method Chromium-release assay
Note Variant found in one patient. It was not recognized by CTLs. The escape variant disappeared after initiation of ART.


Variant ID.  369
Epitope Seq.  KRWIIMGLNK
Variant Seq.  KRWIIlGLNK
Mutations M/L
Epitope Location M6L
HXB2 Location M268L
Mutation Type SF: susceptible form
Method Chromium-release assay, HLA binding
Note Variant bound to B*2705 with similar efficiency as the wt epitope.


Variant ID.  370
Epitope Seq.  KRWIIMGLNK
Variant Seq.  KkWIIlGLNK
Mutations R/K M/L
Epitope Location R2K M6L
HXB2 Location R264K M268L
Mutation Type E: escape documented in this paper
Method Chromium-release assay, HLA binding
Note Variant had severely diminished binding to B*2705 comparable to the R/K escape variant.


Variant ID.  2211
Epitope Seq.  KRWIIMGLNK
Variant Seq.  KRWIIMGmNK
Mutations L/M
Epitope Location L8M
HXB2 Location L270M
Mutation Type OV: observed variant
Note Variant observed early on, but coincided with relatively stable CD4 count, viral load, and stable CTL response.

References

Goulder1997b P. J. R. Goulder, R. E. Phillips, R. A. Colbert, S. McAdam, G. Ogg, M. A. Nowak, P. Giangrande, G. Luzzi, B. Morgan, A. Edwards, A. McMichael, and S. Rowland-Jones. Late Escape from an Immunodominant Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Response Associated with Progression to AIDS. Nat. Med., 3:212-216, 1997. The CTL response was studied in six HIV+ individuals who make a strong immunodominat response to the same B27 epitope. In two donors an escape mutation arose after close to 10 years of epitope stability, around the time of progression to AIDS. PubMed ID: 9018241. Show all entries for this paper.

Goulder1997e P. Goulder, D. Price, M. Nowak, S. Rowland-Jones, R. Phillips, and A. McMichael. Co-Evolution of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses. Immunol. Rev., 159:17-29, 1997. PubMed ID: 9416500. Show all entries for this paper.


Displaying record number 279

HXB2 Location  Gag(263-272)   Gag Epitope Map
View variants at this location
Epitope KRWIILGLNK   Epitope Alignment
Variants
KRWIImGLNK   susceptible form
Species (MHC/HLA human(B27)

Variant Details

Showing all: 1 variant(s).


Variant ID.  381
Epitope Seq.  KRWIILGLNK
Variant Seq.  KRWIImGLNK
Mutations L/M
Epitope Location L6M
HXB2 Location L268M
Mutation Type SF: susceptible form
Note This variant was recognized more efficiently than the wt epitope by patient CTLs.

References

Goulder1997e P. Goulder, D. Price, M. Nowak, S. Rowland-Jones, R. Phillips, and A. McMichael. Co-Evolution of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses. Immunol. Rev., 159:17-29, 1997. PubMed ID: 9416500. Show all entries for this paper.

Phillips1991 R. E. Phillips, S. Rowland-Jones, D. F. Nixon, F. M. Gotch, J. P. Edwards, A. O. Ogunlesi, J. G. Elvin, J. A. Rothbard, C. R. Bangham, C. R. Rizza, and A. J. McMichael. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Genetic Variation That Can Escape Cytotoxic T Cell Recognition. Nature, 354:453-459, 1991. Fluctuations in the specificity of cytotoxic T-cells for HIV were correlated with variability in proviral gag (DNA) epitope sequences. PubMed ID: 1721107. Show all entries for this paper.


Displaying record number 271

HXB2 Location  Gag(263-272)   Gag Epitope Map
View variants at this location
Epitope KRWIILGLNK   Epitope Alignment
Variants
KkWIILGLNK   escape documented in this paper
KRWIImGLNK   observed variant
Species (MHC/HLA human(B*27:05, B27)

Variant Details

Showing all: 2 variant(s).


Variant ID.  371
Epitope Seq.  KRWIILGLNK
Variant Seq.  KkWIILGLNK
Mutations R/K
Epitope Location R2K
HXB2 Location R264K
Mutation Type E: escape documented in this paper
Note Variant is not recognized by CTLs.


Variant ID.  372
Epitope Seq.  KRWIILGLNK
Variant Seq.  KRWIImGLNK
Mutations L/M
Epitope Location L6M
HXB2 Location L268M
Mutation Type OV: observed variant
Note Variant observed in 2/32 clade B sequences in the HIV database.

References

Goulder1997d P. J. Goulder, A. Edwards, R. E. Phillips, and A. J. McMichael. Identification of a Novel HLA-B*2705-Restricted Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Epitope within a Conserved Region of HIV-1 Nef. AIDS, 11:536-538, 1997. PubMed ID: 9084804. Show all entries for this paper.

Goulder1997e P. Goulder, D. Price, M. Nowak, S. Rowland-Jones, R. Phillips, and A. McMichael. Co-Evolution of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses. Immunol. Rev., 159:17-29, 1997. PubMed ID: 9416500. Show all entries for this paper.


Displaying record number 345

HXB2 Location  Gag(323-337)   Gag Epitope Map
View variants at this location
Epitope VQNANPDCKTILKAL   Epitope Alignment
Variants
VQNANPDCrTILKAL   escape documented in this paper
Species (MHC/HLA human(B8)

Variant Details

Showing all: 1 variant(s).


Variant ID.  382
Epitope Seq.  VQNANPDCKTILKAL
Variant Seq.  VQNANPDCrTILKAL
Mutations K/R
Epitope Location K9R
HXB2 Location K331R
Mutation Type E: escape documented in this paper
Note This variant failed to be recognized by CTLs and failed to induce target specific lysis.

References

Goulder1997e P. Goulder, D. Price, M. Nowak, S. Rowland-Jones, R. Phillips, and A. McMichael. Co-Evolution of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses. Immunol. Rev., 159:17-29, 1997. PubMed ID: 9416500. Show all entries for this paper.

Phillips1991 R. E. Phillips, S. Rowland-Jones, D. F. Nixon, F. M. Gotch, J. P. Edwards, A. O. Ogunlesi, J. G. Elvin, J. A. Rothbard, C. R. Bangham, C. R. Rizza, and A. J. McMichael. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Genetic Variation That Can Escape Cytotoxic T Cell Recognition. Nature, 354:453-459, 1991. Fluctuations in the specificity of cytotoxic T-cells for HIV were correlated with variability in proviral gag (DNA) epitope sequences. PubMed ID: 1721107. Show all entries for this paper.


Displaying record number 622

HXB2 Location  gp160(31-39)   gp160 Epitope Map
View variants at this location
Epitope AENLWVTVY   Epitope Alignment
Variants
tENLWVTVY   susceptible form
AkNLWVTVY   non-susceptible form
AgNLWVTVY   non-susceptible form
AaNLWVTVY   non-susceptible form
Species (MHC/HLA human(B44)

Variant Details

Showing all: 4 variant(s).


Variant ID.  91
Epitope Seq.  AENLWVTVY
Variant Seq.  tENLWVTVY
Mutations A/T
Epitope Location A1T
HXB2 Location A31T
Mutation Type SF: susceptible form
Epitope Subtype B
Variant Subtype B
Note The naturally occurring forms of the peptide found in WEAU were tested as targets for early WEAU CTLs -- the form TENLWVTVY was as reactive as the wild type AENLWVTVY -- but the forms AKNLWVTVY, AGNLWVTVY, AANLWVTVY did not serve as targets.


Variant ID.  92
Epitope Seq.  AENLWVTVY
Variant Seq.  AkNLWVTVY
Mutations E/K
Epitope Location E2K
HXB2 Location E32K
Mutation Type NSF: non-susceptible form
Epitope Subtype B
Variant Subtype B
Note The naturally occurring forms of the peptide found in WEAU were tested as targets for early WEAU CTLs -- the form TENLWVTVY was as reactive as the wild type AENLWVTVY -- but the forms AKNLWVTVY, AGNLWVTVY, AANLWVTVY did not serve as targets.


Variant ID.  93
Epitope Seq.  AENLWVTVY
Variant Seq.  AgNLWVTVY
Mutations E/G
Epitope Location E2G
HXB2 Location E32G
Mutation Type NSF: non-susceptible form
Epitope Subtype B
Variant Subtype B
Note The naturally occurring forms of the peptide found in WEAU were tested as targets for early WEAU CTLs -- the form TENLWVTVY was as reactive as the wild type AENLWVTVY -- but the forms AKNLWVTVY, AGNLWVTVY, AANLWVTVY did not serve as targets.


Variant ID.  94
Epitope Seq.  AENLWVTVY
Variant Seq.  AaNLWVTVY
Mutations E/A
Epitope Location E2A
HXB2 Location E32A
Mutation Type NSF: non-susceptible form
Epitope Subtype B
Variant Subtype B
Note The naturally occurring forms of the peptide found in WEAU were tested as targets for early WEAU CTLs -- the form TENLWVTVY was as reactive as the wild type AENLWVTVY -- but the forms AKNLWVTVY, AGNLWVTVY, AANLWVTVY did not serve as targets.

References

Borrow1997 P. Borrow, H. Lewicki, X. Wei, M. S. Horwitz, N. Peffer, H. Meyers, J. A. Nelson, J. E. Gairin, B. H. Hahn, M. B. Oldstone, and G. M. Shaw. Anti-Viral Pressure Exerted by HIV-1-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTLs) During Primary Infection Demonstrated by Rapid Selection of CTL Escape Virus. Nat. Med., 3:205-211, 1997. Genetic pathways of virus escape from CTL pressure resembled virus escape from antiretroviral therapy. PubMed ID: 9018240. Show all entries for this paper.

Borrow1998 P. Borrow and G. M. Shaw. Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Escape Viral Variants: How Important Are They in Viral Evasion of Immune Clearance In Vivo? Immunol. Rev., 164:37-51, 1998. PubMed ID: 9795762. Show all entries for this paper.

Goulder1997e P. Goulder, D. Price, M. Nowak, S. Rowland-Jones, R. Phillips, and A. McMichael. Co-Evolution of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses. Immunol. Rev., 159:17-29, 1997. PubMed ID: 9416500. Show all entries for this paper.


Displaying record number 981

HXB2 Location  Nef(73-82)   Nef Epitope Map
View variants at this location
Epitope QVPLRPMTYK   Epitope Alignment
Variants
QVPLRPMTsr   diminished HLA binding or increased off-rate
{r*}QVPLRPMTYK{g}   inferred escape; processing
Species (MHC/HLA human(A11)

Variant Details

Showing all: 2 variant(s).


Variant ID.  128
Epitope Seq.  QVPLRPMTYK
Variant Seq.  QVPLRPMTsr
Mutations K/R Y/S
Epitope Location K10R Y9S
HXB2 Location K82R Y81S
Mutation Type DHB: diminished HLA binding or increased off-rate
Method Chromium-release assay, HLA binding
Note The epitope QVPLRPMTYK was entirely conserved in 9 isolates from the donor who did not recognize this epitope. QVPLRPMTsr substitutions resulted in a very low binding to HLA-A11.


Variant ID.  2283
Epitope Seq.  {T*}QVPLRPMTYK{A}
Variant Seq.  {r*}QVPLRPMTYK{g}
Mutations A/G T/R
Epitope Location A+1G T-2R
HXB2 Location A83G T71R
Mutation Type IE: inferred escape
P: processing
Method Chromium-release assay, HLA binding
Note The epitope QVPLRPMTYK was entirely conserved in 9 isolates from the donor who did not recognize this epitope, whereas there were flanking mutations T71R and A83G, suggesting a processing escape.

References

Couillin1994 I. Couillin, B. Culmann-Penciolelli, E. Gomard, J. Choppin, J. P Levy, J. G. Guillet, and S. Sarasgosti. Impaired Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Recognition Due to Genetic Variations in the Main Immunogenic Region of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 NEF Protein. J. Exp. Med., 180:1129-11234, 1994. HIV-1 HLA-A11 and -B18 restricted epitopes were sequenced from donors who do and do not express the HLA-A11 and B18 molecule. Selective variations were only detected in virus isolated from individuals expressing the appropriate HLA type. Variant peptides with single substitutions within the minimal epitope did not always completely abrogate HLA binding, suggesting that multiple alterations within a particular epitope may need to accumulate during disease progression to allow viral escape. PubMed ID: 7520468. Show all entries for this paper.

Goulder1997e P. Goulder, D. Price, M. Nowak, S. Rowland-Jones, R. Phillips, and A. McMichael. Co-Evolution of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses. Immunol. Rev., 159:17-29, 1997. PubMed ID: 9416500. Show all entries for this paper.


Displaying record number 1007

HXB2 Location  Nef(84-92)   Nef Epitope Map
View variants at this location
Epitope AVDLSHFLK   Epitope Alignment
Variants
AfDLSHFLr   diminished HLA binding or increased off-rate
ArDLSHFLK   diminished HLA binding or increased off-rate
AlDLSHFLK   susceptible form
Species (MHC/HLA human(A11)

Variant Details

Showing all: 3 variant(s).


Variant ID.  129
Epitope Seq.  AVDLSHFLK
Variant Seq.  AfDLSHFLr
Mutations V/F K/R
Epitope Location V2F K9R
HXB2 Location V85F K92R
Mutation Type DHB: diminished HLA binding or increased off-rate
Method Chromium-release assay, HLA binding
Note AfDLSHFLr and ArDLSHFLK mutations abrogated HLA-A11 binding. V to L substitution (AlDLSHFLK) in the second position of the epitope did not influence recognition by HLA-A11 restricted CTL.


Variant ID.  130
Epitope Seq.  AVDLSHFLK
Variant Seq.  ArDLSHFLK
Mutations V/R
Epitope Location V2R
HXB2 Location V85R
Mutation Type DHB: diminished HLA binding or increased off-rate
Method Chromium-release assay, HLA binding
Note AfDLSHFLr and ArDLSHFLK mutations abrogated HLA-A11 binding. V to L substitution (AlDLSHFLK) in the second position of the epitope did not influence recognition by HLA-A11 restricted CTL.


Variant ID.  131
Epitope Seq.  AVDLSHFLK
Variant Seq.  AlDLSHFLK
Mutations V/L
Epitope Location V2L
HXB2 Location V85L
Mutation Type SF: susceptible form
Method Chromium-release assay, HLA binding
Note AfDLSHFLr and ArDLSHFLK mutations abrogated HLA-A11 binding. V to L substitution (AlDLSHFLK) in the second position of the epitope did not influence recognition by HLA-A11 restricted CTL.

References

Couillin1994 I. Couillin, B. Culmann-Penciolelli, E. Gomard, J. Choppin, J. P Levy, J. G. Guillet, and S. Sarasgosti. Impaired Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Recognition Due to Genetic Variations in the Main Immunogenic Region of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 NEF Protein. J. Exp. Med., 180:1129-11234, 1994. HIV-1 HLA-A11 and -B18 restricted epitopes were sequenced from donors who do and do not express the HLA-A11 and B18 molecule. Selective variations were only detected in virus isolated from individuals expressing the appropriate HLA type. Variant peptides with single substitutions within the minimal epitope did not always completely abrogate HLA binding, suggesting that multiple alterations within a particular epitope may need to accumulate during disease progression to allow viral escape. PubMed ID: 7520468. Show all entries for this paper.

Goulder1997e P. Goulder, D. Price, M. Nowak, S. Rowland-Jones, R. Phillips, and A. McMichael. Co-Evolution of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses. Immunol. Rev., 159:17-29, 1997. PubMed ID: 9416500. Show all entries for this paper.


Displaying record number 1015

HXB2 Location  Nef(90-97)   Nef Epitope Map
View variants at this location
Epitope FLKEKGGL   Epitope Alignment
Variants
FLKEqGGL   diminished HLA binding or increased off-rate; escape documented in this paper
FLKEeGGL   diminished HLA binding or increased off-rate; escape documented in this paper
FLKEnGGL   diminished HLA binding or increased off-rate; escape documented in this paper
FLKdKGGL   diminished HLA binding or increased off-rate; escape documented in this paper
sLKEKGGL   susceptible form
lLKEKGGL   susceptible form
FiKEnGGL   diminished HLA binding or increased off-rate; escape documented in this paper
FLeEnGGL   diminished HLA binding or increased off-rate; escape documented in this paper
FLKgnGGL   diminished HLA binding or increased off-rate; escape documented in this paper
--------   epitope loss
Species (MHC/HLA human(B*08)

Variant Details

Showing all: 10 variant(s).


Variant ID.  1431
Epitope Seq.  FLKEKGGL
Variant Seq.  FLKEqGGL
Mutations K/Q
Epitope Location K5Q
HXB2 Location K94Q
Mutation Type DHB: diminished HLA binding or increased off-rate
E: escape documented in this paper
Method Chromium-release assay, HLA binding
Note Reduced binding and recognition


Variant ID.  1432
Epitope Seq.  FLKEKGGL
Variant Seq.  FLKEeGGL
Mutations K/E
Epitope Location K5E
HXB2 Location K94E
Mutation Type DHB: diminished HLA binding or increased off-rate
E: escape documented in this paper
Method Chromium-release assay, HLA binding
Note Reduced binding, recognition


Variant ID.  1433
Epitope Seq.  FLKEKGGL
Variant Seq.  FLKEnGGL
Mutations K/N
Epitope Location K5N
HXB2 Location K94N
Mutation Type DHB: diminished HLA binding or increased off-rate
E: escape documented in this paper
Method Chromium-release assay, HLA binding
Note Reduced binding, recognition


Variant ID.  1434
Epitope Seq.  FLKEKGGL
Variant Seq.  FLKdKGGL
Mutations E/D
Epitope Location E4D
HXB2 Location E93D
Mutation Type DHB: diminished HLA binding or increased off-rate
E: escape documented in this paper
Method Chromium-release assay, HLA binding
Note Reduced binding, recognition


Variant ID.  1435
Epitope Seq.  FLKEKGGL
Variant Seq.  sLKEKGGL
Mutations F/S
Epitope Location F1S
HXB2 Location F90S
Mutation Type SF: susceptible form
Method HLA binding
Note Variant recognized robustly


Variant ID.  1436
Epitope Seq.  FLKEKGGL
Variant Seq.  lLKEKGGL
Mutations F/L
Epitope Location F1L
HXB2 Location F90L
Mutation Type SF: susceptible form
Method HLA binding
Note Variant recognized robustly


Variant ID.  1437
Epitope Seq.  FLKEKGGL
Variant Seq.  FiKEnGGL
Mutations L/I K/N
Epitope Location L2I K5N
HXB2 Location L91I K94N
Mutation Type DHB: diminished HLA binding or increased off-rate
E: escape documented in this paper
Method HLA binding
Note Escaped recognition completely


Variant ID.  1438
Epitope Seq.  FLKEKGGL
Variant Seq.  FLeEnGGL
Mutations K/E K/N
Epitope Location K3E K5N
HXB2 Location K92E K94N
Mutation Type DHB: diminished HLA binding or increased off-rate
E: escape documented in this paper
Method HLA binding
Note Escaped recognition completely


Variant ID.  1439
Epitope Seq.  FLKEKGGL
Variant Seq.  FLKgnGGL
Mutations E/G K/N
Epitope Location E4G K5N
HXB2 Location E93G K94N
Mutation Type DHB: diminished HLA binding or increased off-rate
E: escape documented in this paper
Method HLA binding
Note Escaped recognition completely


Variant ID.  2655
Epitope Seq.  FLKEKGGL
Variant Seq.  --------
Mutations F/- L/- K/- E/- K/- G/- G/- L/-
Epitope Location F1- L2- K3- E4- K5- G6- G7- L8-
HXB2 Location F90- L91- K92- E93- K94- G95- G96- L97-
Mutation Type EL: epitope loss
Epitope Subtype B
Variant Subtype B
Method Sequence
Note A single nucleotide deletion within DNA resulted in a premature termination of Nef protein 6 amino acids before the epitope FL8. 2 clones with this truncation of protein and epitope loss were found at separate time points.

References

Goulder1997e P. Goulder, D. Price, M. Nowak, S. Rowland-Jones, R. Phillips, and A. McMichael. Co-Evolution of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses. Immunol. Rev., 159:17-29, 1997. PubMed ID: 9416500. Show all entries for this paper.

Price1997 D. A. Price, P. J. Goulder, P. Klenerman, A. K. Sewell, P. J. Easterbrook, M. Troop, C. R. Bangham, and R. E. Phillips. Positive Selection of HIV-1 Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Escape Variants during Primary Infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 94:1890-1895, 1997. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are thought to play a crucial role in the termination of the acute primary HIV-1 syndrome, but clear evidence for this presumption has been lacking. Here we demonstrate positive selection of HIV-1 proviral sequences encoding variants within a CTL epitope in Nef, a gene product critical for viral pathogenicity, during and after seroconversion. These positively selected HIV-1 variants carried epitope sequence changes that either diminished or escaped CTL recognition. Other proviruses had mutations that abolished the Nef epitope altogether. These results provide clear evidence that CTLs exert selection pressure on the viral population in acute HIV-1 infection. PubMed ID: 9050875. Show all entries for this paper.


Displaying record number 1066

HXB2 Location  Nef(134-144)   Nef Epitope Map
View variants at this location
Epitope RYPLTFGWCYK   Epitope Alignment
Variants
RYPLcFGWCYK   escape documented in this paper
Species (MHC/HLA human(B18)

Variant Details

Showing all: 1 variant(s).


Variant ID.  132
Epitope Seq.  RYPLTFGWCYK
Variant Seq.  RYPLcFGWCYK
Mutations T/C
Epitope Location T5C
HXB2 Location T138C
Mutation Type E: escape documented in this paper
Method Chromium-release assay, HLA binding
Note Mutants with T5C mutation (RYPLcFGWCYK) evade HLA-B18-restricted CTL responses.

References

Couillin1994 I. Couillin, B. Culmann-Penciolelli, E. Gomard, J. Choppin, J. P Levy, J. G. Guillet, and S. Sarasgosti. Impaired Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Recognition Due to Genetic Variations in the Main Immunogenic Region of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 NEF Protein. J. Exp. Med., 180:1129-11234, 1994. HIV-1 HLA-A11 and -B18 restricted epitopes were sequenced from donors who do and do not express the HLA-A11 and B18 molecule. Selective variations were only detected in virus isolated from individuals expressing the appropriate HLA type. Variant peptides with single substitutions within the minimal epitope did not always completely abrogate HLA binding, suggesting that multiple alterations within a particular epitope may need to accumulate during disease progression to allow viral escape. PubMed ID: 7520468. Show all entries for this paper.

Goulder1997e P. Goulder, D. Price, M. Nowak, S. Rowland-Jones, R. Phillips, and A. McMichael. Co-Evolution of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses. Immunol. Rev., 159:17-29, 1997. PubMed ID: 9416500. Show all entries for this paper.


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