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MAb ID 15e (1.5e, 1.5E, 15E, N70-1.5e)
HXB2 Location Env Env Epitope Map
Author Location gp120
Research Contact James Robinson, Tulane University, LA, and David Ho, ADARC, NY, NY
Epitope (Discontinuous epitope)
Ab Type gp120 CD4BS
Neutralizing View neutralization details
Species (Isotype) human(IgG1κ)
Patient N70
Immunogen HIV-1 infection
Keywords ADCC, adjuvant comparison, antibody binding site, antibody generation, antibody interactions, antibody sequence, assay or method development, binding affinity, brain/CSF, co-receptor, enhancing activity, glycosylation, HAART, ART, kinetics, neutralization, review, structure, subtype comparisons, vaccine antigen design, vaccine-induced immune responses, variant cross-reactivity


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Showing 88 of 88 references.

Isolation Paper
Robinson1990c J. E. Robinson, D. Holton, S. Pacheco-Morell, J. Liu, and H. McMurdo. Identification of Conserved and Variable Epitopes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1) gp120 by Human Monoclonal Antibodies Produced by EBV Transformed Cell Lines. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 6:567-579, 1990. PubMed ID: 1694449. Show all entries for this paper.

Bagley1994 J. Bagley, P. J. Dillon, C. Rosen, J. Robinson, J. Sodroski, and W. A. Marasco. Structural Characterization of Broadly Neutralizing Human Monoclonal Antibodies Against the CD4 Binding Site of HIV-1 gp120. Mol. Immunol., 31(15):1149-1160, 1994. This paper is a detailed study of the V-D-J heavy chain usage and V-J light chain usage for the three monoclonals that bind to the HIV-1 envelope CD4 binding site: F105, 15e and 21h. Different germline genes were used, and there was evidence for antigen-drive clonal selection of somatic mutations. Eight positions in the heavy chain and two in the light chain complementarity determining positions were identical in the three Mabs. PubMed ID: 7935503. Show all entries for this paper.

Banerjee2009 Kaustuv Banerjee, Sofija Andjelic, Per Johan Klasse, Yun Kang, Rogier W. Sanders, Elizabeth Michael, Robert J. Durso, Thomas J. Ketas, William C. Olson, and John P. Moore. Enzymatic Removal of Mannose Moieties Can Increase the Immune Response to HIV-1 gp120 In Vivo. Virology, 389(1-2):108-121, 20 Jun 2009. PubMed ID: 19410272. Show all entries for this paper.

Berman1997 P. W. Berman, A. M. Gray, T. Wrin, J. C. Vennari, D. J. Eastman, G. R. Nakamura, D. P. Francis, G. Gorse, and D. H. Schwartz. Genetic and Immunologic Characterization of Viruses Infecting MN-rgp120-Vaccinated Volunteers. J. Infect. Dis., 176:384-397, 1997. PubMed ID: 9237703. Show all entries for this paper.

Binley1997 J. M. Binley, H. Arshad, T. R. Fouts, and J. P. Moore. An investigation of the high avidity antibody response to gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 13:1007-1015, 1997. PubMed ID: 9264287. Show all entries for this paper.

Binley1998 J. M. Binley, R. Wyatt, E. Desjardins, P. D. Kwong, W. Hendrickson, J. P. Moore, and J. Sodroski. Analysis of the Interaction of Antibodies with a Conserved Enzymatically Deglycosylated Core of the HIV Type 1 Envelope Glycoprotein 120. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 14:191-198, 1998. This paper helped showed the biological relevance of a deglycosylated variable loop deleted form of the core gp120. PubMed ID: 9491908. Show all entries for this paper.

Binley2010 James M Binley, Yih-En Andrew Ban, Emma T. Crooks, Dirk Eggink, Keiko Osawa, William R. Schief, and Rogier W. Sanders. Role of Complex Carbohydrates in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection and Resistance to Antibody Neutralization. J. Virol., 84(11):5637-5655, Jun 2010. PubMed ID: 20335257. Show all entries for this paper.

Bontjer2010 Ilja Bontjer, Mark Melchers, Dirk Eggink, Kathryn David, John P. Moore, Ben Berkhout, and Rogier W. Sanders. Stabilized HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers Lacking the V1V2 Domain, Obtained by Virus Evolution. J. Biol. Chem, 285(47):36456-36470, 19 Nov 2010. PubMed ID: 20826824. Show all entries for this paper.

Chen2009 Lei Chen, Young Do Kwon, Tongqing Zhou, Xueling Wu, Sijy O'Dell, Lisa Cavacini, Ann J. Hessell, Marie Pancera, Min Tang, Ling Xu, Zhi-Yong Yang, Mei-Yun Zhang, James Arthos, Dennis R. Burton, Dimiter S. Dimitrov, Gary J. Nabel, Marshall R. Posner, Joseph Sodroski, Richard Wyatt, John R. Mascola, and Peter D. Kwong. Structural Basis of Immune Evasion at the Site of CD4 Attachment on HIV-1 gp120. Science, 326(5956):1123-1127, 20 Nov 2009. PubMed ID: 19965434. Show all entries for this paper.

Cook1994 D. G. Cook, J. Fantini, S. L. Spitalnik, and F. Gonzalez-Scarano. Binding of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 HIV-1 gp120 to Galactosylceramide (GalCer): Relationship to the V3 Loop. Virol., 201:206-214, 1994. Antibodies against GalCer can block infection of CD4-negative cells from the brain and colon that are susceptible to HIV infection. This paper explores the ability of a panel of MAbs to inhibit binding of gp120 to GalCer, and also of the binding of GalCer to inhibit MAb-gp120 interaction. MAbs to the V3 loop and GalCer showed mutual inhibition of binding to gp120, and anti-CD4 binding site MAbs showed reduced inhibition. N- and C-terminal MAbs didn't influence GalCer binding. PubMed ID: 8184533. Show all entries for this paper.

Cordell1991 J. Cordell, J. P. Moore, C. J. Dean, P. J. Klasse, R. A. Weiss, and J. A. McKeating. Rat Monoclonal Antibodies to Nonoverlapping Epitopes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I gp120 Block CD4 Binding In Vitro. Virology, 185:72-79, 1991. PubMed ID: 1718090. Show all entries for this paper.

Crooks2005 Emma T. Crooks, Penny L. Moore, Douglas Richman, James Robinson, Jeffrey A. Crooks, Michael Franti, Norbert Schülke, and James M. Binley. Characterizing Anti-HIV Monoclonal Antibodies and Immune Sera by Defining the Mechanism of Neutralization. Hum Antibodies, 14(3-4):101-113, 2005. PubMed ID: 16720980. Show all entries for this paper.

Crooks2007 Emma T. Crooks, Penny L. Moore, Michael Franti, Charmagne S. Cayanan, Ping Zhu, Pengfei Jiang, Robbert P. de Vries, Cheryl Wiley, Irina Zharkikh, Norbert Schülke, Kenneth H. Roux, David C. Montefiori, Dennis R. Burton, and James M. Binley. A Comparative Immunogenicity Study of HIV-1 Virus-Like Particles Bearing Various Forms of Envelope Proteins, Particles Bearing no Envelope and Soluble Monomeric gp120. Virology, 366(2):245-262, 30 Sep 2007. PubMed ID: 17580087. Show all entries for this paper.

Crooks2015 Ema T. Crooks, Tommy Tong, Bimal Chakrabarti, Kristin Narayan, Ivelin S. Georgiev, Sergey Menis, Xiaoxing Huang, Daniel Kulp, Keiko Osawa, Janelle Muranaka, Guillaume Stewart-Jones, Joanne Destefano, Sijy O'Dell, Celia LaBranche, James E. Robinson, David C. Montefiori, Krisha McKee, Sean X. Du, Nicole Doria-Rose, Peter D. Kwong, John R. Mascola, Ping Zhu, William R. Schief, Richard T. Wyatt, Robert G. Whalen, and James M. Binley. Vaccine-Elicited Tier 2 HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies Bind to Quaternary Epitopes Involving Glycan-Deficient Patches Proximal to the CD4 Binding Site. PLoS Pathog, 11(5):e1004932, May 2015. PubMed ID: 26023780. Show all entries for this paper.

Derby2006 Nina R. Derby, Zane Kraft, Elaine Kan, Emma T. Crooks, Susan W. Barnett, Indresh K. Srivastava, James M. Binley, and Leonidas Stamatatos. Antibody Responses Elicited in Macaques Immunized with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) SF162-Derived gp140 Envelope Immunogens: Comparison with Those Elicited during Homologous Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus SHIVSF162P4 and Heterologous HIV-1 Infection. J. Virol., 80(17):8745-8762, Sep 2006. PubMed ID: 16912322. Show all entries for this paper.

Dey2008 Antu K. Dey, Kathryn B. David, Neelanjana Ray, Thomas J. Ketas, Per J. Klasse, Robert W. Doms, and John P. Moore. N-Terminal Substitutions in HIV-1 gp41 Reduce the Expression of Non-Trimeric Envelope Glycoproteins on the Virus. Virology, 372(1):187-200, 1 Mar 2008. PubMed ID: 18031785. Show all entries for this paper.

Fouts1997 T. R. Fouts, J. M. Binley, A. Trkola, J. E. Robinson, and J. P. Moore. Neutralization of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Primary Isolate JR-FL by Human Monoclonal Antibodies Correlates with Antibody Binding to the Oligomeric Form of the Envelope Glycoprotein Complex. J. Virol., 71:2779-2785, 1997. To test whether antibody neutralization of HIV-1 primary isolates is correlated with the affinities for the oligomeric envelope glycoproteins, JRFL was used as a model primary virus and a panel of 13 human MAbs were evaluated for: half-maximal binding to rec monomeric JRFL gp120; half-maximal binding to oligomeric - JRFL Env expressed on the surface of transfected 293 cells; and neutralization of JRFL in a PBMC-based neutralization assay. Antibody affinity for oligomeric JRFL Env but not monomeric JRFL gp120 correlated with JRFL neutralization. PubMed ID: 9060632. Show all entries for this paper.

Fouts1998 T. R. Fouts, A. Trkola, M. S. Fung, and J. P. Moore. Interactions of Polyclonal and Monoclonal Anti-Glycoprotein 120 Antibodies with Oligomeric Glycoprotein 120-Glycoprotein 41 Complexes of a Primary HIV Type 1 Isolate: Relationship to Neutralization. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 14:591-597, 1998. Ab reactivity to oligomeric forms of gp120 were compared to neutralization of the macrophage tropic primary virus JRFL, and did not always correlate. This builds upon studies which have shown that oligomer binding while required for neutralization, is not always sufficient. MAb 205-46-9 and 2G6 bind oligomer with high affinity, comparable to IgG1b12, but unlike IgG1b12, cannot neutralize JRFL. Furthermore, neutralizing and non-neutralizing sera from HIV-1 infected people are similar in their reactivities to oligomeric JRFL Envelope. PubMed ID: 9591713. Show all entries for this paper.

Frey2008 Gary Frey, Hanqin Peng, Sophia Rits-Volloch, Marco Morelli, Yifan Cheng, and Bing Chen. A Fusion-Intermediate State of HIV-1 gp41 Targeted by Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 105(10):3739-3744, 11 Mar 2008. PubMed ID: 18322015. Show all entries for this paper.

Gach2013 Johannes S. Gach, Heribert Quendler, Tommy Tong, Kristin M. Narayan, Sean X. Du, Robert G. Whalen, James M. Binley, Donald N. Forthal, Pascal Poignard, and Michael B. Zwick. A Human Antibody to the CD4 Binding Site of gp120 Capable of Highly Potent but Sporadic Cross Clade Neutralization of Primary HIV-1. PLoS One, 8(8):e72054, 2013. PubMed ID: 23991039. Show all entries for this paper.

Gorny2003 Miroslaw K. Gorny and Susan Zolla-Pazner. Human Monoclonal Antibodies that Neutralize HIV-1. In Bette T. M. Korber and et. al., editors, HIV Immunology and HIV/SIV Vaccine Databases 2003. pages 37--51. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Theoretical Biology \& Biophysics, Los Alamos, N.M., 2004. URL: LA-UR 04-8162. Show all entries for this paper.

Gorny2009 Miroslaw K. Gorny, Xiao-Hong Wang, Constance Williams, Barbara Volsky, Kathy Revesz, Bradley Witover, Sherri Burda, Mateusz Urbanski, Phillipe Nyambi, Chavdar Krachmarov, Abraham Pinter, Susan Zolla-Pazner, and Arthur Nadas. Preferential Use of the VH5-51 Gene Segment by the Human Immune Response to Code for Antibodies against the V3 Domain of HIV-1. Mol. Immunol., 46(5):917-926, Feb 2009. PubMed ID: 18952295. Show all entries for this paper.

Ho1991a D. D. Ho, J. A. McKeating, X. L. Li, T. Moudgil, E. S. Daar, N.-C. Sun, and J. E. Robinson. Conformational Epitope of gp120 Important in CD4 Binding and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Neutralization Identified by a Human Monoclonal Antibody. J. Virol., 65:489-493, 1991. A description of the neutralizing human MAb 15e. It binds to HIV-1 with a broad specificity, and blocks gp120 binding to CD4, and is a discontinuous epitope; DTT reduction of env abrogates binding. PubMed ID: 1702163. Show all entries for this paper.

Ho1992 D. D. Ho, M. S. C. Fung, H. Yoshiyama, Y. Cao, and J. E. Robinson. Discontinuous Epitopes on gp120 Important in HIV-1 Neutralization. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 8:1337-1339, 1992. Further description of the human MAb 15e and the murine MAb G3-4. gp120 mutants that affect 15e epitope binding: 113, 257, 368, 370, 421, 427, 475; four of these coincide with amino acids important for the CD4 binding domain. G3-4 is neutralizing and behaves like a discontinuous epitope, and partially blocks sCD4 binding. PubMed ID: 1281654. Show all entries for this paper.

Kang2009 Yun Kenneth Kang, Sofija Andjelic, James M. Binley, Emma T. Crooks, Michael Franti, Sai Prasad N. Iyer, Gerald P. Donovan, Antu K. Dey, Ping Zhu, Kenneth H. Roux, Robert J. Durso, Thomas F. Parsons, Paul J. Maddon, John P. Moore, and William C. Olson. Structural and Immunogenicity Studies of a Cleaved, Stabilized Envelope Trimer Derived from Subtype A HIV-1. Vaccine, 27(37):5120-5132, 13 Aug 2009. PubMed ID: 19567243. Show all entries for this paper.

Kolchinsky2001 P. Kolchinsky, E. Kiprilov, P. Bartley, R. Rubinstein, and J. Sodroski. Loss of a single N-linked glycan allows CD4-independent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection by altering the position of the gp120 V1/V2 variable loops. J. Virol., 75(7):3435--43, Apr 2001. URL: PubMed ID: 11238869. Show all entries for this paper.

Koup1991 R. A. Koup, J. E. Robinson, Q. V. Nguyen, C. A. Pikora, B. Blais, A. Roskey, D. Panicali, and J. L. Sullivan. Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Directed by a Human Monoclonal Antibody Reactive with gp120 of HIV-1. AIDS, 5:1309-1314, 1991. PubMed ID: 1722676. Show all entries for this paper.

Kramer2007 Victor G. Kramer, Nagadenahalli B. Siddappa, and Ruth M. Ruprecht. Passive Immunization as Tool to Identify Protective HIV-1 Env Epitopes. Curr. HIV Res., 5(6):642-55, Nov 2007. PubMed ID: 18045119. Show all entries for this paper.

Kwong2002 Peter D. Kwong, Michael L. Doyle, David J. Casper, Claudia Cicala, Stephanie A. Leavitt, Shahzad Majeed, Tavis D. Steenbeke, Miro Venturi, Irwin Chaiken, Michael Fung, Hermann Katinger, Paul W. I. H. Parren, James Robinson, Donald Van Ryk, Liping Wang, Dennis R. Burton, Ernesto Freire, Richard Wyatt, Joseph Sodroski, Wayne A. Hendrickson, and James Arthos. HIV-1 Evades Antibody-Mediated Neutralization through Conformational Masking of Receptor-Binding Sites. Nature, 420(6916):678-682, 12 Dec 2002. Comment in Nature. 2002 Dec 12;420(6916):623-4. PubMed ID: 12478295. Show all entries for this paper.

Lai2012 Rachel P. J. Lai, Michael S. Seaman, Paul Tonks, Frank Wegmann, David J. Seilly, Simon D. W. Frost, Celia C. LaBranche, David C. Montefiori, Antu K. Dey, Indresh K. Srivastava, Quentin Sattentau, Susan W. Barnett, and Jonathan L. Heeney. Mixed Adjuvant Formulations Reveal a New Combination That Elicit Antibody Response Comparable to Freund's Adjuvants. PLoS One, 7(4):e35083, 2012. PubMed ID: 22509385. Show all entries for this paper.

Leaman2010 Daniel P. Leaman, Heather Kinkead, and Michael B. Zwick. In-Solution Virus Capture Assay Helps Deconstruct Heterogeneous Antibody Recognition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1. J. Virol., 84(7):3382-3395, Apr 2010. PubMed ID: 20089658. Show all entries for this paper.

Lee1995 C.-N. Lee, J. Robinson, G. Mazzara, Y.-L. Cheng, M. Essex, and T.-H. Lee. Contribution of hypervariable domains to the conformation of a broadly neutralizing glycoprotein 120 epitope. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 11:777-781, 1995. Deletion of the V4 or V5 domains, in contrast to the V1, V2 and V3 domains of gp120, affect the broadly neutralizing epitope recognized by 1.5e by disturbing the overall conformation of the envelope protein. PubMed ID: 7546903. Show all entries for this paper.

Li1997 A. Li, T. W. Baba, J. Sodroski, S. Zolla-Pazner, M. K. Gorny, J. Robinson, M. R. Posner, H. Katinger, C. F. Barbas III, D. R. Burton, T.-C. Chou, and R. M Ruprecht. Synergistic Neutralization of a Chimeric SIV/HIV Type 1 Virus with Combinations of Human Anti-HIV Type 1 Envelope Monoclonal Antibodies or Hyperimmune Globulins. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 13:647-656, 1997. Multiple combinations of MAbs were tested for their ability to synergize neutralization of a SHIV construct containing HIV IIIB env. All of the MAb combinations tried were synergistic, suggesting such combinations may be useful for passive immunotherapy or immunoprophylaxis. Because SHIV can replicate in rhesus macaques, such approaches can potentially be studied in an it in vivo monkey model. PubMed ID: 9168233. Show all entries for this paper.

Lin2007 George Lin and Peter L. Nara. Designing Immunogens to Elicit Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies to the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein. Curr. HIV Res., 5(6):514-541, Nov 2007. PubMed ID: 18045109. Show all entries for this paper.

Magnus2010 Carsten Magnus and Roland R. Regoes. Estimating the Stoichiometry of HIV Neutralization. PLoS Comput. Biol., 6(3):e1000713, Mar 2010. PubMed ID: 20333245. Show all entries for this paper.

McCann2005 C. M. Mc Cann, R. J. Song, and R. M. Ruprecht. Antibodies: Can They Protect Against HIV Infection? Curr. Drug Targets Infect. Disord., 5(2):95-111, Jun 2005. PubMed ID: 15975016. Show all entries for this paper.

McDougal1996 J. S. McDougal, M. S. Kennedy, S. L. Orloff, J. K. A. Nicholson, and T. J. Spira. Mechanisms of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Neutralization: Irreversible Inactivation of Infectivity by Anti-HIV-1 Antibody. J. Virol., 70:5236-5245, 1996. Studies of polyclonal sera autologous virus inactivation indicates that in individuals over time, viral populations emerge that are resistant to inactivating effects of earlier sera. PubMed ID: 8764033. Show all entries for this paper.

McKeating1996b J. A. McKeating, Y. J. Zhang, C. Arnold, R. Frederiksson, E. M. Fenyo, and P. Balfe. Chimeric viruses expressing primary envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type I show increased sensitivity to neutralization by human sera. Virology, 220:450-460, 1996. Chimeric viruses for HXB2 with primary isolate gp120 gave patterns of cell tropism and cytopathicity identical to the original primary viruses. Sera that were unable to neutralize the primary isolates were in some cases able to neutralize chimeric viruses, indicating that some of the neutralizing epitopes were in gp41. PubMed ID: 8661395. Show all entries for this paper.

Melchers2012 Mark Melchers, Ilja Bontjer, Tommy Tong, Nancy P. Y. Chung, Per Johan Klasse, Dirk Eggink, David C. Montefiori, Maurizio Gentile, Andrea Cerutti, William C. Olson, Ben Berkhout, James M. Binley, John P. Moore, and Rogier W. Sanders. Targeting HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers to B Cells by Using APRIL Improves Antibody Responses. J. Virol., 86(5):2488-2500, Mar 2012. PubMed ID: 22205734. Show all entries for this paper.

Moore1993a J. P. Moore and D. D. Ho. Antibodies to discontinuous or conformationally sensitive epitopes on the gp120 glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are highly prevalent in sera of infected humans. J. Virol., 67:863-875, 1993. CD4BS antibodies are prevalent in HIV-1-positive sera, while neutralizing MAbs to C4, V2, and V3 and MAbs to linear epitopes are less common. Most linear epitope MAbs in human sera are directed against the V3 region, and cross-reactive MAbs tend to be directed against discontinuous epitopes. PubMed ID: 7678308. Show all entries for this paper.

Moore1994b J. P. Moore, F. E. McCutchan, S.-W. Poon, J. Mascola, J. Liu, Y. Cao, and D. D. Ho. Exploration of Antigenic Variation in gp120 from Clades A through F of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 by Using Monoclonal Antibodies. J. Virol., 68:8350-8364, 1994. Four of five anti-V3 MAbs were slightly cross-reactive within clade B, but not very reactive outside clade B. Two discontinuous CD4 binding site Mabs appear to be pan-reactive. Anti-V2 MAbs were only sporadically reactive inside and outside of clade B. PubMed ID: 7525988. Show all entries for this paper.

Moore1994d J. P. Moore, Y. Cao, D. D. Ho, and R. A. Koup. Development of the anti-gp120 antibody response during seroconversion to human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J. Virol., 68:5142-5155, 1994. Three seroconverting individuals were studied. The earliest detectable anti-gp120 antibodies were both conformational and anti-V3 loop, and could be detected only after the peak viremia has passed. No uniform pattern of autologous neutralizing anti-CD4BS or anti-V3 MAbs was observed. PubMed ID: 8035514. Show all entries for this paper.

Moore1996 J. P. Moore and J. Sodroski. Antibody cross-competition analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein. J. Virol., 70:1863-1872, 1996. 46 anti-gp120 monomer MAbs were used to create a competition matrix, and MAb competition groups were defined. The data suggests that there are two faces of the gp120 glycoprotein: a face occupied by the CD4BS, which is presumably also exposed on the oligomeric envelope glycoprotein complex, and a second face which is presumably inaccessible on the oligomer and interacts with a number of nonneutralizing antibodies. PubMed ID: 8627711. Show all entries for this paper.

Nabatov2004 Alexey A. Nabatov, Georgios Pollakis, Thomas Linnemann, Aletta Kliphius, Moustapha I. M. Chalaby, and William A. Paxton. Intrapatient Alterations in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp120 V1V2 and V3 Regions Differentially Modulate Coreceptor Usage, Virus Inhibition by CC/CXC Chemokines, Soluble CD4, and the b12 and 2G12 Monoclonal Antibodies. J. Virol., 78(1):524-530, Jan 2004. PubMed ID: 14671134. Show all entries for this paper.

Pancera2010a Marie Pancera, Shahzad Majeed, Yih-En Andrew Ban, Lei Chen, Chih-chin Huang, Leopold Kong, Young Do Kwon, Jonathan Stuckey, Tongqing Zhou, James E. Robinson, William R. Schief, Joseph Sodroski, Richard Wyatt, and Peter D. Kwong. Structure of HIV-1 gp120 with gp41-Interactive Region Reveals Layered Envelope Architecture and Basis of Conformational Mobility. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 107(3):1166-1171, 19 Jan 2010. PubMed ID: 20080564. Show all entries for this paper.

Pantophlet2003 Ralph Pantophlet, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Pascal Poignard, Paul W. H. I. Parren, Ian A. Wilson, and Dennis R. Burton. Fine Mapping of the Interaction of Neutralizing and Nonneutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies with the CD4 Binding Site of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp120. J. Virol., 77(1):642-658, Jan 2003. PubMed ID: 12477867. Show all entries for this paper.

Pantophlet2003b Ralph Pantophlet, Ian A. Wilson, and Dennis R. Burton. Hyperglycosylated Mutants of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Type 1 Monomeric gp120 as Novel Antigens for HIV Vaccine Design. J. Virol., 77(10):5889-8901, May 2003. PubMed ID: 12719582. Show all entries for this paper.

Pantophlet2004 R. Pantophlet, I. A. Wilson, and D. R. Burton. Improved Design of an Antigen with Enhanced Specificity for the Broadly HIV-Neutralizing Antibody b12. Protein Eng. Des. Sel., 17(10):749-758, Oct 2004. PubMed ID: 15542540. Show all entries for this paper.

Park2000 E. J. Park, M. K. Gorny, S. Zolla-Pazner, and G. V. Quinnan. A global neutralization resistance phenotype of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is determined by distinct mechanisms mediating enhanced infectivity and conformational change of the envelope complex. J. Virol., 74:4183-91, 2000. PubMed ID: 10756031. Show all entries for this paper.

Parren1997 P. W. Parren, M. C. Gauduin, R. A. Koup, P. Poignard, Q. J. Sattentau, P. Fisicaro, and D. R. Burton. Erratum to Relevance of the Antibody Response against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope to Vaccine Design. Immunol. Lett., 58:125-132, 1997. corrected and republished article originally printed in Immunol. Lett. 1997 Jun;57(1-3):105-112. PubMed ID: 9271324. Show all entries for this paper.

Parren1998 P. W. Parren, I. Mondor, D. Naniche, H. J. Ditzel, P. J. Klasse, D. R. Burton, and Q. J. Sattentau. Neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by antibody to gp120 is determined primarily by occupancy of sites on the virion irrespective of epitope specificity. J. Virol., 72:3512-9, 1998. The authors propose that the occupancy of binding sites on HIV-1 virions is the major factor in determining neutralization, irrespective of epitope specificity. Neutralization was assayed T-cell-line-adapted HIV-1 isolates. Binding of Fabs to monomeric rgp120 was not correlated with binding to functional oligomeric gp120 or neutralization, while binding to functional oligomeric gp120 was highly correlated with neutralization. The ratios of oligomer binding/neutralization were similar for antibodies to different neutralization epitopes, with a few exceptions. PubMed ID: 9557629. Show all entries for this paper.

Poignard1996b P. Poignard, T. Fouts, D. Naniche, J. P. Moore, and Q. J. Sattentau. Neutralizing antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 gp120 induce envelope glycoprotein subunit dissociation. J. Exp. Med., 183:473-484, 1996. Binding of Anti-V3 and the CD4I neutralizing MAbs induces shedding of gp120 on cells infected with the T-cell line-adapted HIV-1 molecular clone Hx10. This was shown by significant increases of gp120 in the supernatant, and exposure of a gp41 epitope that is masked in the oligomer. MAbs binding either to the V2 loop or to CD4BS discontinuous epitopes do not induce gp120 dissociation. This suggests HIV neutralization probably is caused by several mechanisms, and one of the mechanisms may involve gp120 dissociation. PubMed ID: 8627160. Show all entries for this paper.

Pollara2013 Justin Pollara, Mattia Bonsignori, M. Anthony Moody, Marzena Pazgier, Barton F. Haynes, and Guido Ferrari. Epitope Specificity of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Antibody Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC) Responses. Curr. HIV Res., 11(5):378-387, Jul 2013. PubMed ID: 24191939. Show all entries for this paper.

Raja2003 Aarti Raja, Miro Venturi, Peter Kwong, and Joseph Sodroski. CD4 Binding Site Antibodies Inhibit Human Immunodeficiency Virus gp120 Envelope Glycoprotein Interaction with CCR5. J. Virol., 77(1):713-718, Jan 2003. PubMed ID: 12477875. Show all entries for this paper.

Robinson1992 J. Robinson, H. Yoshiyama, D. Holton, S. Elliot, and D.D. Ho. Distinct Antigenic Sites on HIV gp120 Identified by a Panel of Human Monoclonal Antibodies. J. Cell Biochem., Suppl 16E:71, 1992. Show all entries for this paper.

Robinson2005 James E. Robinson, Debra Holton Elliott, Effie A. Martin, Kathryne Micken, and Eric S. Rosenberg. High Frequencies of Antibody Responses to CD4 Induced Epitopes in HIV Infected Patients Started on HAART during Acute Infection. Hum Antibodies, 14(3-4):115-121, 2005. PubMed ID: 16720981. Show all entries for this paper.

Sanders2013 Rogier W. Sanders, Ronald Derking, Albert Cupo, Jean-Philippe Julien, Anila Yasmeen, Natalia de Val, Helen J. Kim, Claudia Blattner, Alba Torrents de la Peña, Jacob Korzun, Michael Golabek, Kevin de los Reyes, Thomas J. Ketas, Marit J. van Gils, C. Richter King, Ian A. Wilson, Andrew B. Ward, P. J. Klasse, and John P. Moore. A Next-Generation Cleaved, Soluble HIV-1 Env Trimer, BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140, Expresses Multiple Epitopes for Broadly Neutralizing but not Non-Neutralizing Antibodies. PLoS Pathog., 9(9):e1003618, Sep 2013. PubMed ID: 24068931. Show all entries for this paper.

Sattentau1995a Q. J. Sattentau and J. P. Moore. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralization is determined by epitope exposure on the gp120 oligomer. J. Exp. Med., 182:185-196, 1995. This study suggests that antibodies specific for one of five different binding regions on gp120 are associated with viral neutralization: V2, V3, C4, the CD4 binding site, and a complex discontinuous epitope that does not interfere with CD4 binding. Kinetic binding properties of a set of MAbs that bind to these regions were studied, analyzing binding to both functional oligomeric LAI gp120 and soluble monomeric LAI BH10 gp120; neutralization ID$_50$s were also evaluated. It was found that the neutralization ID$_50$s was related to the ability to bind oligomeric, not monomeric, gp120, and concluded that with the exception of the V3 loop, regions of gp120 that are immunogenic will be poorly presented on cell-line-adapted virions. Further, the association rate, estimated as the t$_1/2$ to reach equilibrium binding to multimeric, virion associated, gp120, appears to be a major factor relating to affinity and potency of the neutralization response to cell-line-adapted virus. PubMed ID: 7540648. Show all entries for this paper.

Seaman2010 Michael S. Seaman, Holly Janes, Natalie Hawkins, Lauren E. Grandpre, Colleen Devoy, Ayush Giri, Rory T. Coffey, Linda Harris, Blake Wood, Marcus G. Daniels, Tanmoy Bhattacharya, Alan Lapedes, Victoria R Polonis, Francine E. McCutchan, Peter B. Gilbert, Steve G. Self, Bette T. Korber, David C. Montefiori, and John R. Mascola. Tiered Categorization of a Diverse Panel of HIV-1 Env Pseudoviruses for Assessment of Neutralizing Antibodies. J Virol, 84(3):1439-1452, Feb 2010. PubMed ID: 19939925. Show all entries for this paper.

Srivastava2005 Indresh K. Srivastava, Jeffrey B. Ulmer, and Susan W. Barnett. Role of Neutralizing Antibodies in Protective Immunity Against HIV. Hum. Vaccin., 1(2):45-60, Mar-Apr 2005. PubMed ID: 17038830. Show all entries for this paper.

Sullivan1998 N. Sullivan, Y. Sun, Q. Sattentau, M. Thali, D. Wu, G. Denisova, J. Gershoni, J. Robinson, J. Moore, and J. Sodroski. CD4-Induced Conformational Changes in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp120 Glycoprotein: Consequences for Virus Entry and Neutralization. J. Virol., 72:4694-4703, 1998. A study of the sCD4 inducible MAb 17bi, and the MAb CG10 that recognizes a gp120-CD4 complex. These epitopes are minimally accessible upon attachment of gp120 to the cell. The CD4-binding induced changes in gp120 were studied, exploring the sequestering of chemokine receptor binding sites from the humoral response. PubMed ID: 9573233. Show all entries for this paper.

Sullivan1998b N. Sullivan, Y. Sun, J. Binley, J. Lee, C. F. Barbas III, P. W. H. I. Parren, D. R. Burton, and J. Sodroski. Determinants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein activation by soluble CD4 and monoclonal antibodies. J. Virol., 72:6332-8, 1998. PubMed ID: 9658072. Show all entries for this paper.

Sundling2012 Christopher Sundling, Yuxing Li, Nick Huynh, Christian Poulsen, Richard Wilson, Sijy O'Dell, Yu Feng, John R. Mascola, Richard T. Wyatt, and Gunilla B. Karlsson Hedestam. High-Resolution Definition of Vaccine-Elicited B Cell Responses Against the HIV Primary Receptor Binding Site. Sci. Transl. Med., 4(142):142ra96, 11 Jul 2012. PubMed ID: 22786681. Show all entries for this paper.

Takeda1992 A. Takeda, J. E. Robinson, D. D. Ho, C. Debouck, N. L. Haigwood, and F. A. Ennis. Distinction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralization and infection enhancement by human monoclonal antibodies to glycoprotein 120. J Clin Inv, 89:1952-1957, 1992. Complement receptors for IgG on monocytic cells can serve as a means for MAb mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infection. MAbs N70-1.5 and N70-2.3a bind distinct discontinuous epitopes in gp120. N70-1.5 is a potent neutralizing MAb with no enhancing activity, while N70-2.3a doesn't neutralize and mediates enhancement of HIV-1 infection. PubMed ID: 1376330. Show all entries for this paper.

Thali1991 M. Thali, U. Olshevsky, C. Furman, D. Gabuzda, M. Posner, and J. Sodroski. Characterization of a discontinuous human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 epitope recognized by a broadly reactive neutralizing human monoclonal antibody. J. Virol., 65(11):6188-6193, 1991. An early detailed characterization of the mutations that inhibit the neutralization capacity of the MAb F105, that binds to a discontinuous epitope and inhibits CD4 binding to gp120. PubMed ID: 1717717. Show all entries for this paper.

Thali1992a M. Thali, C. Furman, D. D. Ho, J. Robinson, S. Tilley, A. Pinter, and J. Sodroski. Discontinuous, Conserved Neutralization Epitopes Overlapping the CD4-Binding Region of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp120 Envelope Glycoprotein. J. Virol., 66:5635-5641, 1992. Maps the relationship between amino acid substitutions that reduce CD4-gp120 interaction, and amino acid substitutions that reduce the binding of discontinuous epitope MAbs that inhibit CD4 binding. PubMed ID: 1380099. Show all entries for this paper.

Thali1993 M. Thali, J. P. Moore, C. Furman, M. Charles, D. D. Ho, J. Robinson, and J. Sodroski. Characterization of Conserved Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp120 Neutralization Epitopes Exposed upon gp120-CD4 Binding. J. Virol., 67:3978-3988, 1993. Five regions are likely to contribute to the 48d and 17b discontinuous epitopes, either directly or through local conformational effects: the hydrophobic ring-like structure formed by the disulfide bond that links C3 and C4, the base of the stem-loop that contains V1 and V2, and the hydrophobic region in C2 from Arg 252 to Asp 262. Additionally changes in Glu 370, and Met 475 in C5, affected binding and neutralization. The hydrophobic character of these critical regions is consistent with the limited exposure on gp120 prior to CD4 binding. PubMed ID: 7685405. Show all entries for this paper.

Thali1994 M. Thali, M. Charles, C. Furman, L. Cavacini, M. Posner, J. Robinson, and J. Sodroski. Resistance to Neutralization by Broadly Reactive Antibodies to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp120 Glycoprotein Conferred by a gp41 Amino Acid Change. J. Virol., 68:674-680, 1994. A T->A amino acid substitution at position 582 of gp41 conferred resistance to neutralization to 30\% of HIV positive sera (Wilson et al. J Virol 64:3240-48 (1990)). Monoclonal antibodies that bound to the CD4 binding site were unable to neutralize this virus, but the mutation did not reduce the neutralizing capacity of a V2 region MAb G3-4, V3 region MAbs, or gp41 neutralizing MAb 2F5. PubMed ID: 7507184. Show all entries for this paper.

Tong2012 Tommy Tong, Ema T. Crooks, Keiko Osawa, and James M. Binley. HIV-1 Virus-Like Particles Bearing Pure Env Trimers Expose Neutralizing Epitopes but Occlude Nonneutralizing Epitopes. J. Virol., 86(7):3574-3587, Apr 2012. PubMed ID: 22301141. Show all entries for this paper.

Trkola1996b A. Trkola, T. Dragic, J. Arthos, J. M. Binley, W. C. Olson, G. P. Allaway, C. Cheng-Mayer, J. Robinson, P. J. Maddon, and J. P. Moore. CD4-Dependent, Antibody-Sensitive Interactions between HIV-1 and Its Co-Receptor CCR-5. Nature, 384:184-187, 1996. CCR-5 is a co-factor for fusion of HIV-1 strains of the non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) phenotype with CD4+ T-cells. CD4 binding greatly increases the efficiency of gp120-CCR-5 interaction. Neutralizing MAbs against the V3 loop and CD4-induced epitopes on gp120 inhibited the interaction of gp120 with CCR-5, without affecting gp120-CD4 binding. PubMed ID: 8906796. Show all entries for this paper.

Trkola1998 A. Trkola, T. Ketas, V. N. Kewalramani, F. Endorf, J. M. Binley, H. Katinger, J. Robinson, D. R. Littman, and J. P. Moore. Neutralization Sensitivity of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Primary Isolates to Antibodies and CD4-Based Reagents Is Independent of Coreceptor Usage. J. Virol., 72:1876-1885, 1998. PubMed ID: 9499039. Show all entries for this paper.

Vaine2008 Michael Vaine, Shixia Wang, Emma T. Crooks, Pengfei Jiang, David C. Montefiori, James Binley, and Shan Lu. Improved Induction of Antibodies against Key Neutralizing Epitopes by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp120 DNA Prime-Protein Boost Vaccination Compared to gp120 Protein-Only Vaccination. J. Virol., 82(15):7369-7378, Aug 2008. PubMed ID: 18495775. Show all entries for this paper.

Walker2010 Laura M. Walker, Melissa D. Simek, Frances Priddy, Johannes S. Gach, Denise Wagner, Michael B. Zwick, Sanjay K. Phogat, Pascal Poignard, and Dennis R. Burton. A Limited Number of Antibody Specificities Mediate Broad and Potent Serum Neutralization in Selected HIV-1 Infected Individuals. PLoS Pathog., 6(8), 2010. PubMed ID: 20700449. Show all entries for this paper.

Watkins1993 B. A. Watkins, M. S. Reitz, Jr., C. A. Wilson, K. Aldrich, A. E. Davis, and M. Robert-Guroff. Immune escape by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from neutralizing antibodies: evidence for multiple pathways. J. Virol., 67:7493-7500, 1993. A neutralization resistance point mutation (HXB2 A281V) was studied using a variety of MAbs, and it was shown that this substitution affects a different epitope than a previously characterized neutralization escape mutant (A582T) (Reitz 1988, Wilson 1990). PubMed ID: 7693973. Show all entries for this paper.

Wisnewski1996 A. Wisnewski, L. Cavacini, and M. Posner. Human antibody variable region gene usage in HIV-1 infection. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol., 11:31-38, 1996. PubMed ID: 8528730. Show all entries for this paper.

Wu2009a Lan Wu, Tongqing Zhou, Zhi-yong Yang, Krisha Svehla, Sijy O'Dell, Mark K. Louder, Ling Xu, John R. Mascola, Dennis R. Burton, James A. Hoxie, Robert W. Doms, Peter D. Kwong, and Gary J. Nabel. Enhanced Exposure of the CD4-Binding Site to Neutralizing Antibodies by Structural Design of a Membrane-Anchored Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp120 Domain. J. Virol., 83(10):5077-5086, May 2009. PubMed ID: 19264769. Show all entries for this paper.

Wu2010 Xueling Wu, Zhi-Yong Yang, Yuxing Li, Carl-Magnus Hogerkorp, William R. Schief, Michael S. Seaman, Tongqing Zhou, Stephen D. Schmidt, Lan Wu, Ling Xu, Nancy S. Longo, Krisha McKee, Sijy O'Dell, Mark K. Louder, Diane L. Wycuff, Yu Feng, Martha Nason, Nicole Doria-Rose, Mark Connors, Peter D. Kwong, Mario Roederer, Richard T. Wyatt, Gary J. Nabel, and John R. Mascola. Rational Design of Envelope Identifies Broadly Neutralizing Human Monoclonal Antibodies to HIV-1. Science, 329(5993):856-861, 13 Aug 2010. PubMed ID: 20616233. Show all entries for this paper.

Wyatt1992 R. Wyatt, M. Thali, S. Tilley, A. Pinter, M. Posner, D. Ho, J. Robinson, and J. Sodroski. Relationship of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp120 Third Variable Loop to Elements of the CD4 Binding Site. J. Virol., 66:6997-7004, 1992. This paper examines mutations which alter MAb binding and neutralization. Anti-V3 MAb 9284 has enhanced binding due to a mutation in the C4 region that is also important for CD4 binding, and anti-CD4 binding MAbs F105, 1.5e and 1125H show increased precipitation of a gp120 from which the V3 loop was deleted, relative to wild type, in RIPA buffer containing non-ionic detergents. PubMed ID: 1279195. Show all entries for this paper.

Wyatt1993 R. Wyatt, N. Sullivan, M. Thali, H. Repke, D. Ho, J. Robinson, M. Posner, and J. Sodroski. Functional and Immunologic Characterization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Glycoproteins Containing Deletions of the Major Variable Regions. J. Virol., 67:4557-4565, 1993. Affinity of neutralizing MAbs directed against the CD4 binding site was increased dramatically by deletion mutants across the V1/V2 and V3 structures, suggesting that these domains mask these conserved discontinuous epitopes. PubMed ID: 8331723. Show all entries for this paper.

Wyatt1997 R. Wyatt, E. Desjardin, U. Olshevsky, C. Nixon, J. Binley, V. Olshevsky, and J. Sodroski. Analysis of the Interaction of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp120 Envelope Glycoprotein with the gp41 Transmembrane Glycoprotein. J. Virol., 71:9722-9731, 1997. This study characterized the binding of gp120 and gp41 by comparing Ab reactivity to soluble gp120 and to a soluble complex of gp120 and gp41 called sgp140. The occlusion of gp120 epitopes in the sgp140 complex provides a guide to the gp120 domains that interact with gp41, localizing them in C1 and C5 of gp120. Mutations that disrupt the binding of the occluded antibodies do not influence NAb binding or CD4 binding, thus if the gp41 binding domain is deleted, the immunologically desirable features of gp120 for vaccine design are still intact. PubMed ID: 9371638. Show all entries for this paper.

Wyatt1998 R. Wyatt, P. D. Kwong, E. Desjardins, R. W. Sweet, J. Robinson, W. A. Hendrickson, and J. G. Sodroski. The Antigenic Structure of the HIV gp120 Envelope Glycoprotein. Nature, 393:705-711, 1998. Comment in Nature 1998 Jun 18;393(6686):630-1. The spatial organization of the neutralizing epitopes of gp120 is described, based on epitope maps interpreted in the context of the X-ray crystal structure of a ternary complex that includes a gp120 core, CD4 and a neutralizing antibody. PubMed ID: 9641684. Show all entries for this paper.

Xiang2002 Shi-Hua. Xiang, Peter D. Kwong, Rishi Gupta, Carlo D. Rizzuto, David J. Casper, Richard Wyatt, Liping Wang, Wayne A. Hendrickson, Michael L. Doyle, and Joseph Sodroski. Mutagenic Stabilization and/or Disruption of a CD4-Bound State Reveals Distinct Conformations of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp120 Envelope Glycoprotein. J. Virol., 76(19):9888-9899, Oct 2002. PubMed ID: 12208966. Show all entries for this paper.

Yang2005b Xinzhen Yang, Svetla Kurteva, Sandra Lee, and Joseph Sodroski. Stoichiometry of Antibody Neutralization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1. J. Virol., 79(6):3500-3508, Mar 2005. PubMed ID: 15731244. Show all entries for this paper.

Yuan2006 Wen Yuan, Jessica Bazick, and Joseph Sodroski. Characterization of the Multiple Conformational States of Free Monomeric and Trimeric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Glycoproteins after Fixation by Cross-Linker. J. Virol., 80(14):6725-6737, Jul 2006. PubMed ID: 16809278. Show all entries for this paper.

Zhang2002 Peng Fei Zhang, Peter Bouma, Eun Ju Park, Joseph B. Margolick, James E. Robinson, Susan Zolla-Pazner, Michael N. Flora, and Gerald V. Quinnan, Jr. A Variable Region 3 (V3) Mutation Determines a Global Neutralization Phenotype and CD4-Independent Infectivity of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Associated with a Broadly Cross-Reactive, Primary Virus-Neutralizing Antibody Response. J. Virol., 76(2):644-655, Jan 2002. PubMed ID: 11752155. Show all entries for this paper.

Zhou2007 Tongqing Zhou, Ling Xu, Barna Dey, Ann J. Hessell, Donald Van Ryk, Shi-Hua Xiang, Xinzhen Yang, Mei-Yun Zhang, Michael B. Zwick, James Arthos, Dennis R. Burton, Dimiter S. Dimitrov, Joseph Sodroski, Richard Wyatt, Gary J. Nabel, and Peter D. Kwong. Structural Definition of a Conserved Neutralization Epitope on HIV-1 gp120. Nature, 445(7129):732-737, 15 Feb 2007. PubMed ID: 17301785. Show all entries for this paper.

Zwick2003a Michael B. Zwick, Robert Kelleher, Richard Jensen, Aran F. Labrijn, Meng Wang, Gerald V. Quinnan, Jr., Paul W. H. I. Parren, and Dennis R. Burton. A Novel Human Antibody against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp120 Is V1, V2, and V3 Loop Dependent and Helps Delimit the Epitope of the Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Immunoglobulin G1 b12. J. Virol., 77(12):6965-6978, Jun 2003. PubMed ID: 12768015. Show all entries for this paper.

Schiffner2018 Torben Schiffner, Jesper Pallesen, Rebecca A. Russell, Jonathan Dodd, Natalia de Val, Celia C. LaBranche, David Montefiori, Georgia D. Tomaras, Xiaoying Shen, Scarlett L. Harris, Amin E. Moghaddam, Oleksandr Kalyuzhniy, Rogier W. Sanders, Laura E. McCoy, John P. Moore, Andrew B. Ward, and Quentin J. Sattentau. Structural and Immunologic Correlates of Chemically Stabilized HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins. PLoS Pathog., 14(5):e1006986, May 2018. PubMed ID: 29746590. Show all entries for this paper.

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