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MAb ID 9284 (NEA 9284)
HXB2 Location gp160(301-312)
gp160 Epitope Map
Author Location gp120(307-318 IIIB)
Research Contact Dupont de Nemours, Wilmington, Delaware
Epitope NNTRKSIRIQRG Epitope Alignment
NNTRKSIRIQRG epitope logo
Subtype B
Ab Type gp120 V3 // V3 glycan (V3g)
Neutralizing L
Species (Isotype) mouse(IgG1)
Immunogen vaccine
Keywords antibody binding site

Vaccine Details

Vaccine type inactivated HIV
Vaccine strain B clade IIIB
Vaccine component HIV-1


Showing 19 of 19 notes.


Showing 27 of 27 references.

Binley1997 J. M. Binley, H. Arshad, T. R. Fouts, and J. P. Moore. An investigation of the high avidity antibody response to gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 13:1007-1015, 1997. PubMed ID: 9264287. Show all entries for this paper.

Cao1997 J. Cao, N. Sullivan, E. Desjardin, C. Parolin, J. Robinson, R. Wyatt, and J. Sodroski. Replication and Neutralization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Lacking the V1 and V2 Variable Loops of the gp120 Envelope Glycoprotein. J. Virol., :9808-9812, 1997. An HIV-1 mutant lacking the V1-V2 loops can replicate in Jurkat cells and revertants that replicate with wild-type efficiency rapidly evolve in culture. These viruses exhibited increased neutralization susceptibility to V3 loop or CD4i MAbs, but not to sCD4 or anti-CD4BS MAbs. Thus the gp120 V1 and V2 loops protect HIV-1 from some subsets of neutralizing antibodies. PubMed ID: 9371651. Show all entries for this paper.

Cook1994 D. G. Cook, J. Fantini, S. L. Spitalnik, and F. Gonzalez-Scarano. Binding of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 HIV-1 gp120 to Galactosylceramide (GalCer): Relationship to the V3 Loop. Virol., 201:206-214, 1994. Antibodies against GalCer can block infection of CD4-negative cells from the brain and colon that are susceptible to HIV infection. This paper explores the ability of a panel of MAbs to inhibit binding of gp120 to GalCer, and also of the binding of GalCer to inhibit MAb-gp120 interaction. MAbs to the V3 loop and GalCer showed mutual inhibition of binding to gp120, and anti-CD4 binding site MAbs showed reduced inhibition. N- and C-terminal MAbs didn't influence GalCer binding. PubMed ID: 8184533. Show all entries for this paper.

Este1998 José A. Este, Cecillia Cabrera, Dominique Schols, Peter Cherepanov, Arantxa Gutierrez, Myriam Witvrouw, Christophe Pannecouque, Zeger Debyser, Robert F. Rando, Bonaventura Clotet, Jan Desmyter, and Eric De Clercq. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Glycoprotein gp120 as the Primary Target for the Antiviral Action of AR177 (Zintevir). Mol. Pharmacol., 53(2):340-345, Feb 1998. PubMed ID: 9463493. Show all entries for this paper.

Fontenot1995 J. D. Fontenot, T. C. VanCott, B. S. Parekh, C. P. Pau, J. R. George, D. L. Birx, S. Zolla-Pazner, M. K. Gorny, and J. M. Gatewood. Presentation of HIV V3 Loop Epitopes for Enhanced Antigenicity, Immunogenicity and Diagnostic Potential. AIDS, 9:1121-1129, 1995. PubMed ID: 8519447. Show all entries for this paper.

Ho1991a D. D. Ho, J. A. McKeating, X. L. Li, T. Moudgil, E. S. Daar, N.-C. Sun, and J. E. Robinson. Conformational Epitope of gp120 Important in CD4 Binding and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Neutralization Identified by a Human Monoclonal Antibody. J. Virol., 65:489-493, 1991. A description of the neutralizing human MAb 15e. It binds to HIV-1 with a broad specificity, and blocks gp120 binding to CD4, and is a discontinuous epitope; DTT reduction of env abrogates binding. PubMed ID: 1702163. Show all entries for this paper.

Ivanoff1991 L. A. Ivanoff, D. J. Looney, C. McDanal, J. F. Morris, F. Wong-Staal, A. J. Langlois, S. R. Petteway, Jr., and T. J. Matthews. Alteration of HIV-1 Infectivity and Neutralization by a Single Amino Acid Replacement in the V3 Loop Domain. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 7(7):595-603, Jul 1991. PubMed ID: 1768461. Show all entries for this paper.

McKeating1992a J. A. McKeating, J. Cordell, C. J. Dean, and P. Balfe. Synergistic Interaction between Ligands Binding to the CD4 Binding Site and V3 Domain of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I gp120. Virology, 191:732-742, 1992. PubMed ID: 1280382. Show all entries for this paper.

Moore1993c J. P. Moore, M. Thali, B. A. Jameson, F. Vignaux, G. K. Lewis, S.-W. Poon, M. S. Fung, P. J. Durda, L. Akerblom, B. Wahren, D. D. Ho, Q. J. Sattentau, and J. Sodroski. Immunochemical Analysis of the gp120 Surface Glycoprotein of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1: Probing the Structure of the C4 and V4 Domains and the Interaction of the C4 Domain with the V3 Loop. J. Virol., 73:4785-4796, 1993. General observations: C4 and V3 MAbs are sensitive to the way the epitopes are presented, and this sensitivity cannot be correlated to peptide binding. Some V3-C4 domain interaction was indicated based on mutation and interference studies. PubMed ID: 7687303. Show all entries for this paper.

Moore1996 J. P. Moore and J. Sodroski. Antibody cross-competition analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein. J. Virol., 70:1863-1872, 1996. 46 anti-gp120 monomer MAbs were used to create a competition matrix, and MAb competition groups were defined. The data suggests that there are two faces of the gp120 glycoprotein: a face occupied by the CD4BS, which is presumably also exposed on the oligomeric envelope glycoprotein complex, and a second face which is presumably inaccessible on the oligomer and interacts with a number of nonneutralizing antibodies. PubMed ID: 8627711. Show all entries for this paper.

Okada1994 T. Okada, B. K. Patterson, P. A. Otto, and M. E. Gurney. HIV Type 1 Infection of CD4+ T-Cells Depends Critically on Basic Amino Acid Residues in the V3 Domain of Envelope Glycoprotein 120. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 10:803-811, 1994. PubMed ID: 7986586. Show all entries for this paper.

Parren1998 P. W. Parren, I. Mondor, D. Naniche, H. J. Ditzel, P. J. Klasse, D. R. Burton, and Q. J. Sattentau. Neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by antibody to gp120 is determined primarily by occupancy of sites on the virion irrespective of epitope specificity. J. Virol., 72:3512-9, 1998. The authors propose that the occupancy of binding sites on HIV-1 virions is the major factor in determining neutralization, irrespective of epitope specificity. Neutralization was assayed T-cell-line-adapted HIV-1 isolates. Binding of Fabs to monomeric rgp120 was not correlated with binding to functional oligomeric gp120 or neutralization, while binding to functional oligomeric gp120 was highly correlated with neutralization. The ratios of oligomer binding/neutralization were similar for antibodies to different neutralization epitopes, with a few exceptions. PubMed ID: 9557629. Show all entries for this paper.

Poignard1996b P. Poignard, T. Fouts, D. Naniche, J. P. Moore, and Q. J. Sattentau. Neutralizing antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 gp120 induce envelope glycoprotein subunit dissociation. J. Exp. Med., 183:473-484, 1996. Binding of Anti-V3 and the CD4I neutralizing MAbs induces shedding of gp120 on cells infected with the T-cell line-adapted HIV-1 molecular clone Hx10. This was shown by significant increases of gp120 in the supernatant, and exposure of a gp41 epitope that is masked in the oligomer. MAbs binding either to the V2 loop or to CD4BS discontinuous epitopes do not induce gp120 dissociation. This suggests HIV neutralization probably is caused by several mechanisms, and one of the mechanisms may involve gp120 dissociation. PubMed ID: 8627160. Show all entries for this paper.

Sattentau1991 Q. J. Sattentau and J. P. Moore. Conformational Changes Induced in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Glycoprotein by Soluble CD4 Binding. J. Exp. Med., 174:407-415, 1991. sCD4 binding to gp120 induces conformational changes within envelope oligomers. This was measured on HIV-1-infected cells by the increased binding of gp120/V3 loop specific MAbs, and on the surface of virions by increased cleavage of the V3 loop by an exogenous proteinase. PubMed ID: 1713252. Show all entries for this paper.

Sattentau1993 Q. J. Sattentau, J. P. Moore, F. Vignaux, F. Traincard, and P. Poignard. Conformational changes induced in the envelope glycoproteins of the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses by soluble receptor binding. J. Virol., 67:7383-7393, 1993. PubMed ID: 7693970. Show all entries for this paper.

Sattentau1995a Q. J. Sattentau and J. P. Moore. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralization is determined by epitope exposure on the gp120 oligomer. J. Exp. Med., 182:185-196, 1995. This study suggests that antibodies specific for one of five different binding regions on gp120 are associated with viral neutralization: V2, V3, C4, the CD4 binding site, and a complex discontinuous epitope that does not interfere with CD4 binding. Kinetic binding properties of a set of MAbs that bind to these regions were studied, analyzing binding to both functional oligomeric LAI gp120 and soluble monomeric LAI BH10 gp120; neutralization ID$_50$s were also evaluated. It was found that the neutralization ID$_50$s was related to the ability to bind oligomeric, not monomeric, gp120, and concluded that with the exception of the V3 loop, regions of gp120 that are immunogenic will be poorly presented on cell-line-adapted virions. Further, the association rate, estimated as the t$_1/2$ to reach equilibrium binding to multimeric, virion associated, gp120, appears to be a major factor relating to affinity and potency of the neutralization response to cell-line-adapted virus. PubMed ID: 7540648. Show all entries for this paper.

Schonning1998 K. Schonning, A. Bolmstedt, J. Novotny, O. S. Lund, S. Olofsson, and J. E. Hansen. Induction of Antibodies against Epitopes Inaccessible on the HIV Type 1 Envelope Oligomer by Immunization with Recombinant Monomeric Glycoprotein 120. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 14:1451-1456, 1998. PubMed ID: 9824323. Show all entries for this paper.

Skinner1988 M. A. Skinner, R. Ting, A. J. Langlois, K. J. Weinhold, H. K. Lyerly, K. Javaherian, and T. J. Matthews. Characteristics of a Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody to the HIV Envelope Glycoprotein. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 4:187-197, 1988. PubMed ID: 2456088. Show all entries for this paper.

Skinner1988a M. A. Skinner, A. J. Langlois, C. B. McDanal, J. S. McDougal, D. P. Bolognesi, and T. J. Matthews. Neutralizing Antibodies to an Immunodominant Envelope Sequence Do Not Prevent gp120 Binding to CD4. J. Virol., 62:4195-4200, 1988. This report was an early suggestion that there are at least two classes of biologically active antibodies to HIV: one class is isolate restricted, primarily directed to a hypervariable loop structure of gp120 and not involved in CD4 binding; the second class is directed at more conserved structures that may directly block CD4 binding. PubMed ID: 2845130. Show all entries for this paper.

Sorensen1994 A. M. M. Sorensen, C. Nielsen, M. Arendrup, H. Clausen, J. O. Nielsen, E. Osinaga, A. Roseto, and J.-E. S. Hansen. Neutralization epitopes on HIV pseudotyped with HTLV-I: Conservation of carbohydrate epitopes. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 7:116-123, 1994. Pseudotypes were formed with HIV and HTLV-I. MAb 9284, directed at the V3 loop of gp120, failed to inhibit the infection of CD-4 negative cells with pseudotypes, but anti-HTLV serum did inhibit infection. HIV and HTLV-I appear to induce common carbohydrate neutralizing epitopes. PubMed ID: 7507991. Show all entries for this paper.

Thali1992a M. Thali, C. Furman, D. D. Ho, J. Robinson, S. Tilley, A. Pinter, and J. Sodroski. Discontinuous, Conserved Neutralization Epitopes Overlapping the CD4-Binding Region of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp120 Envelope Glycoprotein. J. Virol., 66:5635-5641, 1992. Maps the relationship between amino acid substitutions that reduce CD4-gp120 interaction, and amino acid substitutions that reduce the binding of discontinuous epitope MAbs that inhibit CD4 binding. PubMed ID: 1380099. Show all entries for this paper.

Thali1993 M. Thali, J. P. Moore, C. Furman, M. Charles, D. D. Ho, J. Robinson, and J. Sodroski. Characterization of Conserved Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp120 Neutralization Epitopes Exposed upon gp120-CD4 Binding. J. Virol., 67:3978-3988, 1993. Five regions are likely to contribute to the 48d and 17b discontinuous epitopes, either directly or through local conformational effects: the hydrophobic ring-like structure formed by the disulfide bond that links C3 and C4, the base of the stem-loop that contains V1 and V2, and the hydrophobic region in C2 from Arg 252 to Asp 262. Additionally changes in Glu 370, and Met 475 in C5, affected binding and neutralization. The hydrophobic character of these critical regions is consistent with the limited exposure on gp120 prior to CD4 binding. PubMed ID: 7685405. Show all entries for this paper.

Thali1994 M. Thali, M. Charles, C. Furman, L. Cavacini, M. Posner, J. Robinson, and J. Sodroski. Resistance to Neutralization by Broadly Reactive Antibodies to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp120 Glycoprotein Conferred by a gp41 Amino Acid Change. J. Virol., 68:674-680, 1994. A T->A amino acid substitution at position 582 of gp41 conferred resistance to neutralization to 30\% of HIV positive sera (Wilson et al. J Virol 64:3240-48 (1990)). Monoclonal antibodies that bound to the CD4 binding site were unable to neutralize this virus, but the mutation did not reduce the neutralizing capacity of a V2 region MAb G3-4, V3 region MAbs, or gp41 neutralizing MAb 2F5. PubMed ID: 7507184. Show all entries for this paper.

Trujillo1993 J. R. Trujillo, M. F. McLane, T.-H. Lee, and M. Essex. Molecular Mimicry between the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp120 V3 Loop and Human Brain Proteins. J. Virol., 67:7711-7715, 1993. PubMed ID: 8230494. Show all entries for this paper.

VanCott1994 T. C. VanCott, F. R. Bethke, V. R. Polonis, M. K. Gorny, S. Zolla-Pazner, R. R. Redfield, and D. L. Birx. Dissociation Rate of Antibody-gp120 Binding Interactions Is Predictive of V3-Mediated Neutralization of HIV-1. J. Immunol., 153:449-459, 1994. Using surface plasmon resonance it was found that the rate of the dissociation of the MAb-gp120 complex, but not the association rate, correlated with MAbs ability to neutralize homologous virus (measured by 50\% inhibition of p24 production). Association constants were similar for all MAbs tested, varying less than 4-fold. Dissociation rate constants were quite variable, with 100-fold differences observed. PubMed ID: 7515931. Show all entries for this paper.

VanCott1995 T. C. VanCott, F. R. Bethke, D. S. Burke, R. R. Redfield, and D. L. Birx. Lack of Induction of Antibodies Specific for Conserved, Discontinuous Epitopes of HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein by Candidate AIDS Vaccines. J. Immunol., 155:4100-4110, 1995. The Ab response in both HIV-1 infected and uninfected volunteers immunized with HIV-1 rec envelope subunit vaccines (Genentech gp120IIIB, MicroGeneSys gp160IIIB, or ImmunoAG gp160IIIB) preferentially induced Abs reactive only to the denatured form of gp120. This may explain the inability of the vaccinee sera to neutralize primary HIV-1 isolates. PubMed ID: 7561123. Show all entries for this paper.

Wyatt1992 R. Wyatt, M. Thali, S. Tilley, A. Pinter, M. Posner, D. Ho, J. Robinson, and J. Sodroski. Relationship of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp120 Third Variable Loop to Elements of the CD4 Binding Site. J. Virol., 66:6997-7004, 1992. This paper examines mutations which alter MAb binding and neutralization. Anti-V3 MAb 9284 has enhanced binding due to a mutation in the C4 region that is also important for CD4 binding, and anti-CD4 binding MAbs F105, 1.5e and 1125H show increased precipitation of a gp120 from which the V3 loop was deleted, relative to wild type, in RIPA buffer containing non-ionic detergents. PubMed ID: 1279195. Show all entries for this paper.

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