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MAb ID 257-D (257, 257-2-D-IV, 257-D-IV, 257, 257-2D, 257D, ARP3023)
HXB2 Location gp160(305-309)
gp160 Epitope Map
Author Location gp120( MN)
Research Contact Susan Zolla-Pazner ( (NYU Med. Center)
Epitope KRIHI Epitope Alignment
KRIHI epitope logo
Subtype B
Ab Type gp120 V3 // V3 glycan (V3g)
Neutralizing L
Species (Isotype) human(IgG1λ)
Patient 257
Immunogen HIV-1 infection
Keywords antibody binding site, antibody generation, antibody interactions, antibody sequence, assay or method development, binding affinity, co-receptor, complement, dendritic cells, enhancing activity, kinetics, mimotopes, neutralization, review, structure, subtype comparisons, vaccine antigen design, vaccine-induced immune responses, variant cross-reactivity


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Showing 42 of 42 references.

Isolation Paper
Gorny1991 M. K. Gorny, J.-Y. Xu, V. Gianakakos, S. Karwowska, C. Williams, H. W. Sheppard, C. V. Hanson, and S. Zolla-Pazner. Production of site-selected neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against the third variable domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 88:3238-3242, 1991. PubMed ID: 2014246. Show all entries for this paper.

Beddows1999 S. Beddows, S. Lister, R. Cheingsong, C. Bruck, and J. Weber. Comparison of the Antibody Repertoire Generated in Healthy Volunteers following Immunization with a Monomeric Recombinant gp120 Construct Derived from a CCR5/CXCR4-Using Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Isolate with Sera from Naturally Infected Individuals. J. Virol., 73:1740-1745, 1999. PubMed ID: 9882391. Show all entries for this paper.

Cavacini1993 L. A. Cavacini, C. L. Emes, J. Power, A. Buchbinder, S. Zolla-Pazner, and M. R. Posner. Human Monoclonal Antibodies to the V3 Loop of HIV-1 gp120 Mediate Variable and Distinct Effects on Binding and Viral Neutralization by a Human Monoclonal Antibody to the CD4 Binding Site. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 6:353-358, 1993. PubMed ID: 8455141. Show all entries for this paper.

Davis2009 Katie L. Davis, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Hui Li, Julie M. Decker, Olaf Kutsch, Lynn Morris, Aidy Salomon, Abraham Pinter, James A. Hoxie, Beatrice H. Hahn, Peter D. Kwong, and George M. Shaw. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2)/HIV-1 Envelope Chimeras Detect High Titers of Broadly Reactive HIV-1 V3-Specific Antibodies in Human Plasma. J. Virol., 83(3):1240-1259, Feb 2009. PubMed ID: 19019969. Show all entries for this paper.

DSouza1991 M. P. D'Souza, P. Durda, C. V. Hanson, G. Milman, and Collaborating Investigators. Evaluation of Monoclonal Antibodies to HIV-1 by Neutralization and Serological Assays: An International Collaboration. AIDS, 5:1061-1070, 1991. PubMed ID: 1718320. Show all entries for this paper.

DSouza1994 M. P. D'Souza, S. J. Geyer, C. V. Hanson, R. M. Hendry, G. Milman, and Collaborating Investigators. Evaluation of Monoclonal Antibodies to HIV-1 Envelope by Neutralization and Binding Assays: An International Collaboration. AIDS, 8:169-181, 1994. PubMed ID: 7519019. Show all entries for this paper.

DSouza1995 M. P. D'Souza, G. Milman, J. A. Bradac, D. McPhee, C. V. Hanson, and R. M. Hendry. Neutralization of Primary HIV-1 Isolates by Anti-Envelope Monoclonal Antibodies. AIDS, 9:867-874, 1995. Eleven labs tested the 6 human MAbs 1125H, TH9, 4.8D, 257-D-IV, TH1, 2F5, and also HIVIG for neutralization of MN, JRCSF, the two B clade primary isolates 301657 and THA/92/026, and the D clade isolate UG/92/21. 2F5 was the most broadly neutralizing, better than HIVIG. The other MAbs showed limited neutralization of only MN (anti-CD4BS MAbs 1125H, TH9, and 4.8D), or MN and JRCSF (anti-V3 MAbs 257-D-IV and TH1). PubMed ID: 7576320. Show all entries for this paper.

Fontenot1995 J. D. Fontenot, T. C. VanCott, B. S. Parekh, C. P. Pau, J. R. George, D. L. Birx, S. Zolla-Pazner, M. K. Gorny, and J. M. Gatewood. Presentation of HIV V3 Loop Epitopes for Enhanced Antigenicity, Immunogenicity and Diagnostic Potential. AIDS, 9:1121-1129, 1995. PubMed ID: 8519447. Show all entries for this paper.

Gorny1993 M. K. Gorny, J.-Y. Xu, S. Karwowska, A. Buchbinder, and S. Zolla-Pazner. Repertoire of Neutralizing Human Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for The V3 Domain of HIV-1 gp120. J. Immunol., 150:635-643, 1993. Characterizaton of 12 human MAbs that bind and neutralize the MN isolate with 50\% neutralization. Two of these antibodies also bound and neutralized IIIB: 447-52-D and 694/98-D; all others could not bind HXB2 peptides. All but two, 418-D and 412-D could bind to SF2 peptides. PubMed ID: 7678279. Show all entries for this paper.

Gorny1998 M. K. Gorny, J. R. Mascola, Z. R. Israel, T. C. VanCott, C. Williams, P. Balfe, C. Hioe, S. Brodine, S. Burda, and S. Zolla-Pazner. A Human Monoclonal Antibody Specific for the V3 Loop of HIV Type 1 Clade E Cross-Reacts with Other HIV Type 1 Clades. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 14:213-221, 1998. PubMed ID: 9491911. Show all entries for this paper.

Gorny2003 Miroslaw K. Gorny and Susan Zolla-Pazner. Human Monoclonal Antibodies that Neutralize HIV-1. In Bette T. M. Korber and et. al., editors, HIV Immunology and HIV/SIV Vaccine Databases 2003. pages 37--51. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Theoretical Biology \& Biophysics, Los Alamos, N.M., 2004. URL: LA-UR 04-8162. Show all entries for this paper.

Gorny2004 Miroslaw K. Gorny, Kathy Revesz, Constance Williams, Barbara Volsky, Mark K. Louder, Christopher A. Anyangwe, Chavdar Krachmarov, Samuel C. Kayman, Abraham Pinter, Arthur Nadas, Phillipe N. Nyambi, John R. Mascola, and Susan Zolla-Pazner. The V3 Loop is Accessible on the Surface of Most Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Primary Isolates and Serves as a Neutralization Epitope. J. Virol., 78(5):2394-2404, Mar 2004. PubMed ID: 14963135. Show all entries for this paper.

Gorny2009 Miroslaw K. Gorny, Xiao-Hong Wang, Constance Williams, Barbara Volsky, Kathy Revesz, Bradley Witover, Sherri Burda, Mateusz Urbanski, Phillipe Nyambi, Chavdar Krachmarov, Abraham Pinter, Susan Zolla-Pazner, and Arthur Nadas. Preferential Use of the VH5-51 Gene Segment by the Human Immune Response to Code for Antibodies against the V3 Domain of HIV-1. Mol. Immunol., 46(5):917-926, Feb 2009. PubMed ID: 18952295. Show all entries for this paper.

Gorny2011 Miroslaw K. Gorny, Jared Sampson, Huiguang Li, Xunqing Jiang, Maxim Totrov, Xiao-Hong Wang, Constance Williams, Timothy O'Neal, Barbara Volsky, Liuzhe Li, Timothy Cardozo, Phillipe Nyambi, Susan Zolla-Pazner, and Xiang-Peng Kong. Human Anti-V3 HIV-1 Monoclonal Antibodies Encoded by the VH5-51/VL Lambda Genes Define a Conserved Antigenic Structure. PLoS One, 6(12):e27780, 2011. PubMed ID: 22164215. Show all entries for this paper.

Hill1997 C. M. Hill, H. Deng, D. Unutmaz, V. N. Kewalramani, L. Bastiani, M. K. Gorny, S. Zolla-Pazner, and D. R. Littman. Envelope glycoproteins from human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 and simian immunodeficiency virus can use human CCR5 as a coreceptor for viral entry and make direct CD4-dependent interactions with this chemokine receptor. J. Virol., 71:6296-6304, 1997. PubMed ID: 9261346. Show all entries for this paper.

Hioe1997b C. E. Hioe, S. Xu, P. Chigurupati, S. Burda, C. Williams, M. K. Gorny, and S. Zolla-Pazner. Neutralization of HIV-1 Primary Isolates by Polyclonal and Monoclonal Human Antibodies. Int. Immunol., 9(9):1281-1290, Sep 1997. PubMed ID: 9310831. Show all entries for this paper.

Holl2006 Vincent Holl, Maryse Peressin, Thomas Decoville, Sylvie Schmidt, Susan Zolla-Pazner, Anne-Marie Aubertin, and Christiane Moog. Nonneutralizing Antibodies Are Able To Inhibit Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication in Macrophages and Immature Dendritic Cells. J. Virol., 80(12):6177-6181, Jun 2006. PubMed ID: 16731957. Show all entries for this paper.

Karwowska1992a S. Karwowska, M. K. Gorny, A. Buchbinder, and S. Zolla-Pazner. Type-specific human monoclonal antibodies cross-react with the V3-loop of various HIV-1 isolates. Vaccines 92, :171-174, 1992. Editors: F. Brown, H. S. Ginsberg and R. Lerner, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY. Show all entries for this paper.

LaCasse1998 R. A. LaCasse, K. E. Follis, T. Moudgil, M. Trahey, J. M. Binley, V. Planelles, S. Zolla-Pazner, and J. H. Nunberg. Coreceptor utilization by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is not a primary determinant of neutralization sensitivity. J. Virol., 72:2491-5, 1998. A T-cell line-adapted (TCLA) derivative of SI primary isolate 168P acquired the ability to to be neutralized by anti-V3 MAbs 257-D, 268-D and 50.1. The primary isolate could use either CCR5 or CXCR4, and was not neutralized when infection was directed via either pathway, but the TCLA derivative uses CXCR4 only and is neutralized. Thus coreceptor usage is not the primary determinant of differential neutralization sensitivity in primary versus TCLA strains. PubMed ID: 9499111. Show all entries for this paper.

Nyambi2000 P. N. Nyambi, H. A. Mbah, S. Burda, C. Williams, M. K. Gorny, A. Nadas, and S. Zolla-Pazner. Conserved and Exposed Epitopes on Intact, Native, Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Virions of Group M. J. Virol., 74:7096-7107, 2000. PubMed ID: 10888650. Show all entries for this paper.

Oggioni1999 M. R. Oggioni, D. Medaglini, L. Romano, F. Peruzzi, T. Maggi, L. Lozzi, L. Bracci, M. Zazzi, F. Manca, P. E. Valensin, and G. Pozzi. Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of the V3 Domain of HIV Type 1 Glycoprotein 120 Expressed on the Surface of Streptococcus gordonii. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 15:451-459, 1999. PubMed ID: 10195755. Show all entries for this paper.

Park2000 E. J. Park, M. K. Gorny, S. Zolla-Pazner, and G. V. Quinnan. A global neutralization resistance phenotype of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is determined by distinct mechanisms mediating enhanced infectivity and conformational change of the envelope complex. J. Virol., 74:4183-91, 2000. PubMed ID: 10756031. Show all entries for this paper.

Patel2008 Milloni B Patel, Noah G. Hoffman, and Ronald Swanstrom. Subtype-Specific Conformational Differences within the V3 Region of Subtype B and Subtype C Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Env Proteins. J. Virol., 82(2):903-916, Jan 2008. PubMed ID: 18003735. Show all entries for this paper.

Schutten1995 M. Schutten, A. C. Andeweg, M. L. Bosch, and A. D. Osterhaus. Enhancement of Infectivity of a Non-Syncytium Inducing HIV-1 by sCD4 and by Human Antibodies that Neutralize Syncytium Inducing HIV-1. Scand. J. Immunol., 41:18-22, 1995. PubMed ID: 7824885. Show all entries for this paper.

Schutten1995a M. Schutten, J. P. Langedijk, A. C. Andeweg, R. C. Huisman, R. H. Meloen, and A. D. Osterhaus. Characterization of a V3 Domain-Specific Neutralizing Human Monoclonal Antibody That Preferentially Recognizes Non-Syncytium-Inducing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Strains. J. Gen. Virol., 76:1665-1673, 1995. Characterization of HuMAb MN215. PubMed ID: 9049372. Show all entries for this paper.

Schutten1996 M. Schutten, K. Tenner-Racz, P. Racz, D. W. van Bekkum, and A. D. Osterhaus. Human antibodies that neutralize primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in vitro do not provide protection in an in vivo model. J. Gen. Virol., 77:1667-75, Aug 1996. PubMed ID: 8760413. Show all entries for this paper.

Schutten1997 M. Schutten, A. C. Andeweg, G. F. Rimmelzwaan, and A. D. Osterhaus. Modulation of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein-mediated entry by human antibodies. J. Gen. Virol., 78:999-1006, 1997. A series of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins from related primary virus isolates of different SI phenotypes, together with chimeras of these proteins, were tested in an envelope trans-complementation assay for their sensitivity to either antibody mediated inhibition or enhancement of HIV-1 entry. In contrast to the inhibition of HIV-1 entry, antibody mediated enhancement was not temperature dependent and could not be mediated by F(ab) fragments, implicating cross-linking as an important step. Enhancement or inhibition seemed to be determined by virus isolate rather than by the specificity of the antiserum used. 2F5 was the only MAb that inhibited the entry of all viruses. PubMed ID: 9152416. Show all entries for this paper.

Spear1993 G. T. Spear, D. M. Takefman, B. L. Sullivan, A. L. Landay, and S. Zolla-Pazner. Complement activation by human monoclonal antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus. J. Virol., 67:53-59, 1993. This study looked at the ability of 16 human MAbs to activate complement. MAbs directed against the V3 region could induce C3 deposition on infected cells and virolysis of free virus, but antibodies to the CD4BS and C-terminal region and two regions in gp41 could induce no complement mediated effects. Pre-treatment with sCD4 could increase complement-mediated effects of anti-gp41 MAbs, but decreased the complement-mediated effects of V3 MAbs. Anti-gp41 MAbs were able to affect IIIB but not MN virolysis, suggesting spontaneous shedding of gp120 on IIIB virions exposes gp41 epitopes. IgG isotype did not appear to have an effect on virolysis or C3 deposition. PubMed ID: 7677959. Show all entries for this paper.

Stamatatos1995 L. Stamatatos and C. Cheng-Mayer. Structural Modulations of the Envelope gp120 Glycoprotein of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 upon Oligomerization and the Differential V3 Loop Epitope Exposure of Isolates Displaying Distinct Tropism upon Viral-Soluble Receptor Binding. J. Virol., 69:6191-6198, 1995. PubMed ID: 7545244. Show all entries for this paper.

Stamatatos1997 L. Stamatatos, S. Zolla-Pazner, M. K. Gorny, and C. Cheng-Mayer. Binding of Antibodies to Virion-Associated gp120 Molecules of Primary-Like Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Isolates: Effect on HIV-1 Infection of Macrophages and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells. Virology, 229:360-369, 1997. PubMed ID: 9126249. Show all entries for this paper.

Stamatatos1998 L. Stamatatos and C. Cheng-Mayer. An Envelope Modification That Renders a Primary, Neutralization-Resistant Clade B Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Isolate Highly Susceptible to Neutralization by Sera from Other Clades. J. Virol., 72:7840-7845, 1998. PubMed ID: 9733820. Show all entries for this paper.

Totrov2010 Maxim Totrov, Xunqing Jiang, Xiang-Peng Kong, Sandra Cohen, Chavdar Krachmarov, Aidy Salomon, Constance Williams, Michael S. Seaman, Ruben Abagyan, Timothy Cardozo, Miroslaw K. Gorny, Shixia Wang, Shan Lu, Abraham Pinter, and Susan Zolla-Pazner. Structure-Guided Design and Immunological Characterization of Immunogens Presenting the HIV-1 gp120 V3 Loop on a CTB Scaffold. Virology, 405(2):513-523, 30 Sep 2010. PubMed ID: 20663531. Show all entries for this paper.

VanCott1994 T. C. VanCott, F. R. Bethke, V. R. Polonis, M. K. Gorny, S. Zolla-Pazner, R. R. Redfield, and D. L. Birx. Dissociation Rate of Antibody-gp120 Binding Interactions Is Predictive of V3-Mediated Neutralization of HIV-1. J. Immunol., 153:449-459, 1994. Using surface plasmon resonance it was found that the rate of the dissociation of the MAb-gp120 complex, but not the association rate, correlated with MAbs ability to neutralize homologous virus (measured by 50\% inhibition of p24 production). Association constants were similar for all MAbs tested, varying less than 4-fold. Dissociation rate constants were quite variable, with 100-fold differences observed. PubMed ID: 7515931. Show all entries for this paper.

Vella2002 Cherelyn Vella, Natalie N. Zheng, Philippa Easterbrook, and Rod S. Daniels. Herpesvirus saimiri-Immortalized Human Lymphocytes: Novel Hosts for Analyzing HIV Type 1 in Vitro Neutralization. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 18(13):933-946, 1 Sep 2002. PubMed ID: 12230936. Show all entries for this paper.

Vincent2012 Nadine Vincent and Etienne Malvoisin. Ability of Antibodies Specific to the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein to Block the Fusion Inhibitor T20 in a Cell-Cell Fusion Assay. Immunobiology, 217(10):943-950, Oct 2012. PubMed ID: 22387075. Show all entries for this paper.

Wisnewski1996 A. Wisnewski, L. Cavacini, and M. Posner. Human antibody variable region gene usage in HIV-1 infection. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol., 11:31-38, 1996. PubMed ID: 8528730. Show all entries for this paper.

Yang1998 G. Yang, M. P. D'Souza, and G. N. Vyas. Neutralizing Antibodies against HIV Determined by Amplification of Viral Long Terminal Repeat Sequences from Cells Infected In Vitro by Nonneutralized Virions. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol., 17:27-34, 1998. A neutralization assay was developed based on heminested PCR amplification of the LTR (HNPCR) -- LTR-HNPCR consistently revealed HIV DNA and was shown to be a rapid, specific and reliable neutralization assay based on tests with 6 MAbs and 5 HIV isolates. PubMed ID: 9436755. Show all entries for this paper.

York2001 J. York, K. E. Follis, M. Trahey, P. N. Nyambi, S. Zolla-Pazner, and J. H. Nunberg. Antibody binding and neutralization of primary and T-cell line-adapted isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J. Virol., 75(6):2741--52, Mar 2001. URL: PubMed ID: 11222697. Show all entries for this paper.

Zhang2002 Peng Fei Zhang, Peter Bouma, Eun Ju Park, Joseph B. Margolick, James E. Robinson, Susan Zolla-Pazner, Michael N. Flora, and Gerald V. Quinnan, Jr. A Variable Region 3 (V3) Mutation Determines a Global Neutralization Phenotype and CD4-Independent Infectivity of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Associated with a Broadly Cross-Reactive, Primary Virus-Neutralizing Antibody Response. J. Virol., 76(2):644-655, Jan 2002. PubMed ID: 11752155. Show all entries for this paper.

Zolla-Pazner1995 S. Zolla-Pazner, J. O'Leary, S. Burda, M. K. Gorny, M. Kim, J. Mascola, and F. McCutchan. Serotyping of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from diverse geographic locations by flow cytometry. J. Virol., 69:3807-3815, 1995. A set of 13 human MAbs to a variety of epitopes were tested against a panel of primary isolates of HIV-1, representing different genetic clades. The V3 loop tended to be B clade restricted, and a single gp120 C-terminus binding antibody was clade specific. Two other gp120 C-terminus binding antibodies were group specific. PubMed ID: 7745728. Show all entries for this paper.

Zolla-Pazner1999a S. Zolla-Pazner, M. K. Gorny, P. N. Nyambi, T. C. VanCott, and A. Nadas. Immunotyping of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV): An Approach to Immunologic Classification of HIV. J. Virol., 73:4042-4051, 1999. 21 human anti-V3 MAbs were studied with respect to cross-clade reactivity and immunological relationship to other human anti-V3 MAbs. Broad cross-reactivities were observed, and V3 peptides were grouped into immunotypes that contained peptides from several clades. PubMed ID: 10196300. Show all entries for this paper.

Zolla-Pazner1999b S. Zolla-Pazner, M. K. Gorny, and P. N. Nyambi. The implications of antigenic diversity for vaccine development. Immunol. Lett., 66:159-64, 1999. PubMed ID: 10203049. Show all entries for this paper.

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