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MAb ID 694/98-D (694/98, 694.8, 694/98D, 694-98D)
HXB2 Location gp160(314-317)
gp160 Epitope Map
Author Location gp120( IIIB)
Research Contact Dr. Zolla-Pazner, Veterans Affairs Center, NY, NY.
Epitope GRAF Epitope Alignment
GRAF epitope logo
Subtype B
Ab Type gp120 V3 // V3 glycan (V3g)
Neutralizing L
Species (Isotype) human(IgG1λ)
Immunogen HIV-1 infection
Keywords ADCC, antibody binding site, antibody interactions, antibody sequence, binding affinity, enhancing activity, neutralization, review, structure, vaccine antigen design, variant cross-reactivity


Showing 36 of 36 notes.


Showing 39 of 39 references.

Isolation Paper
Gorny1992 M. K. Gorny, A. J. Conley, S. Karwowska, A. Buchbinder, J.-Y. Xu, E. A. Emini, S. Koenig, and S. Zolla-Pazner. Neutralization of Diverse Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Variants by an Anti-V3 Human Monoclonal Antibody. J. Virol., 66:7538-7542, 1992. PubMed ID: 1433529. Show all entries for this paper.

Altmeyer1999 R. Altmeyer, E. Mordelet, M. Girard, and C. Vidal. Expression and detection of macrophage tropic HIV-1 gp120 in the brain using conformation-dependent antibodies. Virology, 259:314-21, 1999. PubMed ID: 10388656. Show all entries for this paper.

Andrus1998 L. Andrus, A. M. Prince, I. Bernal, P. McCormack, D. H. Lee, M. K. Gorny, and S. Zolla-Pazner. Passive immunization with a human immunodeficiency virus type 1- neutralizing monoclonal antibody in Hu-PBL-SCID mice: isolation of a neutralization escape variant. J. Infect. Dis., 177:889-97, 1998. PubMed ID: 9534960. Show all entries for this paper.

Cavacini1993 L. A. Cavacini, C. L. Emes, J. Power, A. Buchbinder, S. Zolla-Pazner, and M. R. Posner. Human Monoclonal Antibodies to the V3 Loop of HIV-1 gp120 Mediate Variable and Distinct Effects on Binding and Viral Neutralization by a Human Monoclonal Antibody to the CD4 Binding Site. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 6:353-358, 1993. PubMed ID: 8455141. Show all entries for this paper.

Cook1994 D. G. Cook, J. Fantini, S. L. Spitalnik, and F. Gonzalez-Scarano. Binding of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 HIV-1 gp120 to Galactosylceramide (GalCer): Relationship to the V3 Loop. Virol., 201:206-214, 1994. Antibodies against GalCer can block infection of CD4-negative cells from the brain and colon that are susceptible to HIV infection. This paper explores the ability of a panel of MAbs to inhibit binding of gp120 to GalCer, and also of the binding of GalCer to inhibit MAb-gp120 interaction. MAbs to the V3 loop and GalCer showed mutual inhibition of binding to gp120, and anti-CD4 binding site MAbs showed reduced inhibition. N- and C-terminal MAbs didn't influence GalCer binding. PubMed ID: 8184533. Show all entries for this paper.

EdwardsBH2002 Bradley H. Edwards, Anju Bansal, Steffanie Sabbaj, Janna Bakari, Mark J. Mulligan, and Paul A. Goepfert. Magnitude of Functional CD8+ T-Cell Responses to the Gag Protein of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Correlates Inversely with Viral Load in Plasma. J. Virol., 76(5):2298-2305, Mar 2002. PubMed ID: 11836408. Show all entries for this paper.

Forthal1995 D. N. Forthal, G. Landucci, M. K. Gorny, S. Zolla-Pazner, and W. E. Robinson, Jr. Functional Activities of 20 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)-Specific Human Monoclonal Antibodies. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 11:1095-1099, 1995. A series of tests were performed on 20 human monoclonal antibodies to assess their potential therapeutic utility. Antibodies were tested for potentially harmful complement-mediated antibody enhancing activity (C-ADE), and for potentially beneficial neutralizing activity and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity ADCC. PubMed ID: 8554906. Show all entries for this paper.

Gorny1993 M. K. Gorny, J.-Y. Xu, S. Karwowska, A. Buchbinder, and S. Zolla-Pazner. Repertoire of Neutralizing Human Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for The V3 Domain of HIV-1 gp120. J. Immunol., 150:635-643, 1993. Characterizaton of 12 human MAbs that bind and neutralize the MN isolate with 50\% neutralization. Two of these antibodies also bound and neutralized IIIB: 447-52-D and 694/98-D; all others could not bind HXB2 peptides. All but two, 418-D and 412-D could bind to SF2 peptides. PubMed ID: 7678279. Show all entries for this paper.

Gorny1994 M. K. Gorny, J. P. Moore, A. J. Conley, S. Karwowska, J. Sodroski, C. Williams, S. Burda, L. J. Boots, and S. Zolla-Pazner. Human Anti-V2 Monoclonal Antibody That Neutralizes Primary but Not Laboratory Isolates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1. J. Virol., 68:8312-8320, 1994. Detailed characterization of the MAb 697-D. PubMed ID: 7525987. Show all entries for this paper.

Gorny2003 Miroslaw K. Gorny and Susan Zolla-Pazner. Human Monoclonal Antibodies that Neutralize HIV-1. In Bette T. M. Korber and et. al., editors, HIV Immunology and HIV/SIV Vaccine Databases 2003. pages 37--51. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Theoretical Biology \& Biophysics, Los Alamos, N.M., 2004. URL: LA-UR 04-8162. Show all entries for this paper.

Gorny2004 Miroslaw K. Gorny, Kathy Revesz, Constance Williams, Barbara Volsky, Mark K. Louder, Christopher A. Anyangwe, Chavdar Krachmarov, Samuel C. Kayman, Abraham Pinter, Arthur Nadas, Phillipe N. Nyambi, John R. Mascola, and Susan Zolla-Pazner. The V3 Loop is Accessible on the Surface of Most Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Primary Isolates and Serves as a Neutralization Epitope. J. Virol., 78(5):2394-2404, Mar 2004. PubMed ID: 14963135. Show all entries for this paper.

Gorny2009 Miroslaw K. Gorny, Xiao-Hong Wang, Constance Williams, Barbara Volsky, Kathy Revesz, Bradley Witover, Sherri Burda, Mateusz Urbanski, Phillipe Nyambi, Chavdar Krachmarov, Abraham Pinter, Susan Zolla-Pazner, and Arthur Nadas. Preferential Use of the VH5-51 Gene Segment by the Human Immune Response to Code for Antibodies against the V3 Domain of HIV-1. Mol. Immunol., 46(5):917-926, Feb 2009. PubMed ID: 18952295. Show all entries for this paper.

Haldar2011 Bijayesh Haldar, Sherri Burda, Constance Williams, Leo Heyndrickx, Guido Vanham, Miroslaw K. Gorny, and Phillipe Nyambi. Longitudinal Study of Primary HIV-1 Isolates in Drug-Naïve Individuals Reveals the Emergence of Variants Sensitive to Anti-HIV-1 Monoclonal Antibodies. PLoS One, 6(2):e17253, 2011. PubMed ID: 21383841. Show all entries for this paper.

Harada2008 Shinji Harada, Kazuaki Monde, Yuetsu Tanaka, Tetsuya Kimura, Yosuke Maeda, and Keisuke Yusa. Neutralizing Antibodies Decrease the Envelope Fluidity of HIV-1. Virology, 370(1):142-150, 5 Jan 2008. PubMed ID: 17900650. Show all entries for this paper.

He2002 Yuxian He, William J. Honnen, Chavdar P. Krachmarov, Michael Burkhart, Samuel C. Kayman, Jose Corvalan, and Abraham Pinter. Efficient Isolation of Novel Human Monoclonal Antibodies with Neutralizing Activity Against HIV-1 from Transgenic Mice Expressing Human Ig Loci. J. Immunol., 169(1):595-605, 1 Jul 2002. PubMed ID: 12077293. Show all entries for this paper.

Hioe2009 Catarina E. Hioe, Maria Luisa Visciano, Rajnish Kumar, Jianping Liu, Ethan A. Mack, Rachel E. Simon, David N. Levy, and Michael Tuen. The Use of Immune Complex Vaccines to Enhance Antibody Responses against Neutralizing Epitopes on HIV-1 Envelope gp120. Vaccine, 28(2):352-360, 11 Dec 2009. PubMed ID: 19879224. Show all entries for this paper.

Laal1994 Suman Laal, Sherri Burda, Miroslav K. Gorny, Sylwia Karwowska, Aby Buchbinder, and Susan Zolla-Pazner. Synergistic Neutralization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 by Combinations of Human Monoclonal Antibodies. J. Virol., 68(6):4001-4008, Jun 1994. PubMed ID: 7514683. Show all entries for this paper.

Li1997 A. Li, T. W. Baba, J. Sodroski, S. Zolla-Pazner, M. K. Gorny, J. Robinson, M. R. Posner, H. Katinger, C. F. Barbas III, D. R. Burton, T.-C. Chou, and R. M Ruprecht. Synergistic Neutralization of a Chimeric SIV/HIV Type 1 Virus with Combinations of Human Anti-HIV Type 1 Envelope Monoclonal Antibodies or Hyperimmune Globulins. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 13:647-656, 1997. Multiple combinations of MAbs were tested for their ability to synergize neutralization of a SHIV construct containing HIV IIIB env. All of the MAb combinations tried were synergistic, suggesting such combinations may be useful for passive immunotherapy or immunoprophylaxis. Because SHIV can replicate in rhesus macaques, such approaches can potentially be studied in an it in vivo monkey model. PubMed ID: 9168233. Show all entries for this paper.

Li1998 A. Li, H. Katinger, M. R. Posner, L. Cavacini, S. Zolla-Pazner, M. K. Gorny, J. Sodroski, T. C. Chou, T. W. Baba, and R. M. Ruprecht. Synergistic Neutralization of Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus SHIV-vpu+ by Triple and Quadruple Combinations of Human Monoclonal Antibodies and High-Titer Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Immunoglobulins. J. Virol., 72:3235-3240, 1998. PubMed ID: 9525650. Show all entries for this paper.

Ling2004 Hong Ling, Peng Xiao, Osamu Usami, and Toshio Hattori. Thrombin Activates Envelope Glycoproteins of HIV Type 1 and Enhances Fusion. Microbes Infect., 6(5):414-420, Apr 2004. PubMed ID: 15109955. Show all entries for this paper.

Nyambi1998 P. N. Nyambi, M. K. Gorny, L. Bastiani, G. van der Groen, C. Williams, and S. Zolla-Pazner. Mapping of Epitopes Exposed on Intact Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Virions: A New Strategy for Studying the Immunologic Relatedness of HIV-1. J. Virol., 72:9384-9391, 1998. 18 human MAbs binding to gp120 and gp41 were tested using a novel assay to test binding to intact HIV-1 virions. The new method involves using MAbs to the host proteins incorporated into virions to bind them to ELIZA plates. Antigenic conservation in epitopes of HIV-1 in clades A, B, D, F, G, and H was studied. MAbs were selected that were directed against V2, V3, CD4bd, C5 or gp41 regions. Antibodies against V2, the CD4BS, and sp41 showed weak and sporadic reactivities, while binding strongly to gp120, suggesting these epitopes are hidden when gp120 is in its native, quaternary structure. PubMed ID: 9765494. Show all entries for this paper.

Nyambi2000 P. N. Nyambi, H. A. Mbah, S. Burda, C. Williams, M. K. Gorny, A. Nadas, and S. Zolla-Pazner. Conserved and Exposed Epitopes on Intact, Native, Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Virions of Group M. J. Virol., 74:7096-7107, 2000. PubMed ID: 10888650. Show all entries for this paper.

Park2000 E. J. Park, M. K. Gorny, S. Zolla-Pazner, and G. V. Quinnan. A global neutralization resistance phenotype of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is determined by distinct mechanisms mediating enhanced infectivity and conformational change of the envelope complex. J. Virol., 74:4183-91, 2000. PubMed ID: 10756031. Show all entries for this paper.

Pollara2013 Justin Pollara, Mattia Bonsignori, M. Anthony Moody, Marzena Pazgier, Barton F. Haynes, and Guido Ferrari. Epitope Specificity of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Antibody Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC) Responses. Curr. HIV Res., 11(5):378-387, Jul 2013. PubMed ID: 24191939. Show all entries for this paper.

Schonning1998 K. Schonning, A. Bolmstedt, J. Novotny, O. S. Lund, S. Olofsson, and J. E. Hansen. Induction of Antibodies against Epitopes Inaccessible on the HIV Type 1 Envelope Oligomer by Immunization with Recombinant Monomeric Glycoprotein 120. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 14:1451-1456, 1998. PubMed ID: 9824323. Show all entries for this paper.

Skinner1988 M. A. Skinner, R. Ting, A. J. Langlois, K. J. Weinhold, H. K. Lyerly, K. Javaherian, and T. J. Matthews. Characteristics of a Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody to the HIV Envelope Glycoprotein. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 4:187-197, 1988. PubMed ID: 2456088. Show all entries for this paper.

Smith1998 A. D. Smith, S. C. Geisler, A. A. Chen, D. A. Resnick, B. M. Roy, P. J. Lewi, E. Arnold, and G. F. Arnold. Human Rhinovirus Type 14: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) V3 Loop Chimeras from a Combinatorial Library Induce Potent Neutralizing Antibody Responses against HIV-1. J. Virol., 72:651-659, 1998. The tip of the MN V3 loop, IGPGRAFYTTKN, was inserted into cold-causing human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14) and chimeras were immunoselected using MAbs 447-52-D, 694/98-D, NM-01, and 59.1, for good presentation of the V3 antigenic region. The selected chimeric viruses were neutralized by anti-V3 loop MAbs. The chimeric viruses elicited potent NAbs against ALA-1 and MN in guinea pigs. PubMed ID: 9420270. Show all entries for this paper.

Spear1993 G. T. Spear, D. M. Takefman, B. L. Sullivan, A. L. Landay, and S. Zolla-Pazner. Complement activation by human monoclonal antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus. J. Virol., 67:53-59, 1993. This study looked at the ability of 16 human MAbs to activate complement. MAbs directed against the V3 region could induce C3 deposition on infected cells and virolysis of free virus, but antibodies to the CD4BS and C-terminal region and two regions in gp41 could induce no complement mediated effects. Pre-treatment with sCD4 could increase complement-mediated effects of anti-gp41 MAbs, but decreased the complement-mediated effects of V3 MAbs. Anti-gp41 MAbs were able to affect IIIB but not MN virolysis, suggesting spontaneous shedding of gp120 on IIIB virions exposes gp41 epitopes. IgG isotype did not appear to have an effect on virolysis or C3 deposition. PubMed ID: 7677959. Show all entries for this paper.

Totrov2010 Maxim Totrov, Xunqing Jiang, Xiang-Peng Kong, Sandra Cohen, Chavdar Krachmarov, Aidy Salomon, Constance Williams, Michael S. Seaman, Ruben Abagyan, Timothy Cardozo, Miroslaw K. Gorny, Shixia Wang, Shan Lu, Abraham Pinter, and Susan Zolla-Pazner. Structure-Guided Design and Immunological Characterization of Immunogens Presenting the HIV-1 gp120 V3 Loop on a CTB Scaffold. Virology, 405(2):513-523, 30 Sep 2010. PubMed ID: 20663531. Show all entries for this paper.

Tuen2005 Michael Tuen, Maria Luisa Visciano, Peter C. Chien, Jr., Sandra Cohen, Pei-de Chen, James Robinson, Yuxian He, Abraham Pinter, Miroslaw K Gorny, and Catarina E Hioe. Characterization of Antibodies that Inhibit HIV gp120 Antigen Processing and Presentation. Eur. J. Immunol., 35(9):2541-2551, Sep 2005. PubMed ID: 16106369. Show all entries for this paper.

VanCott1994 T. C. VanCott, F. R. Bethke, V. R. Polonis, M. K. Gorny, S. Zolla-Pazner, R. R. Redfield, and D. L. Birx. Dissociation Rate of Antibody-gp120 Binding Interactions Is Predictive of V3-Mediated Neutralization of HIV-1. J. Immunol., 153:449-459, 1994. Using surface plasmon resonance it was found that the rate of the dissociation of the MAb-gp120 complex, but not the association rate, correlated with MAbs ability to neutralize homologous virus (measured by 50\% inhibition of p24 production). Association constants were similar for all MAbs tested, varying less than 4-fold. Dissociation rate constants were quite variable, with 100-fold differences observed. PubMed ID: 7515931. Show all entries for this paper.

VanCott1995 T. C. VanCott, F. R. Bethke, D. S. Burke, R. R. Redfield, and D. L. Birx. Lack of Induction of Antibodies Specific for Conserved, Discontinuous Epitopes of HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein by Candidate AIDS Vaccines. J. Immunol., 155:4100-4110, 1995. The Ab response in both HIV-1 infected and uninfected volunteers immunized with HIV-1 rec envelope subunit vaccines (Genentech gp120IIIB, MicroGeneSys gp160IIIB, or ImmunoAG gp160IIIB) preferentially induced Abs reactive only to the denatured form of gp120. This may explain the inability of the vaccinee sera to neutralize primary HIV-1 isolates. PubMed ID: 7561123. Show all entries for this paper.

Visciano2008 Maria Luisa Visciano, Michael Tuen, Miroslaw K. Gorny, and Catarina E. Hioe. In Vivo Alteration of Humoral Responses to HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein gp120 by Antibodies to the CD4-Binding Site of gp120. Virology, 372(2):409-420, 15 Mar 2008. PubMed ID: 18054978. Show all entries for this paper.

Zhang2002 Peng Fei Zhang, Peter Bouma, Eun Ju Park, Joseph B. Margolick, James E. Robinson, Susan Zolla-Pazner, Michael N. Flora, and Gerald V. Quinnan, Jr. A Variable Region 3 (V3) Mutation Determines a Global Neutralization Phenotype and CD4-Independent Infectivity of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Associated with a Broadly Cross-Reactive, Primary Virus-Neutralizing Antibody Response. J. Virol., 76(2):644-655, Jan 2002. PubMed ID: 11752155. Show all entries for this paper.

Zolla-Pazner1995 S. Zolla-Pazner, J. O'Leary, S. Burda, M. K. Gorny, M. Kim, J. Mascola, and F. McCutchan. Serotyping of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from diverse geographic locations by flow cytometry. J. Virol., 69:3807-3815, 1995. A set of 13 human MAbs to a variety of epitopes were tested against a panel of primary isolates of HIV-1, representing different genetic clades. The V3 loop tended to be B clade restricted, and a single gp120 C-terminus binding antibody was clade specific. Two other gp120 C-terminus binding antibodies were group specific. PubMed ID: 7745728. Show all entries for this paper.

Zolla-Pazner1997 S. Zolla-Pazner, C. Alving, R. Belshe, P. Berman, S. Burda, P. Chigurupati, M. L. Clements ML, A. M. Duliege, J. L. Excler, C. Hioe, J. Kahn, M. J. McElrath, S. Sharpe, F. Sinangil, K. Steimer, M. C. Walker, N. Wassef, and S. Xu. Neutralization of a clade B primary isolate by sera from human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected recipients of candidate AIDS vaccines. J. Infect. Dis., 175:764-774, 1997. Comment in J Infect Dis 1997 Nov;176(5):1410-2. Clade B primary isolate BZ167 was neutralized, using a new assay, by sera from HIV-uninfected volunteers in vaccine trials. PubMed ID: 9086128. Show all entries for this paper.

Zolla-Pazner1999a S. Zolla-Pazner, M. K. Gorny, P. N. Nyambi, T. C. VanCott, and A. Nadas. Immunotyping of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV): An Approach to Immunologic Classification of HIV. J. Virol., 73:4042-4051, 1999. 21 human anti-V3 MAbs were studied with respect to cross-clade reactivity and immunological relationship to other human anti-V3 MAbs. Broad cross-reactivities were observed, and V3 peptides were grouped into immunotypes that contained peptides from several clades. PubMed ID: 10196300. Show all entries for this paper.

Zolla-Pazner1999b S. Zolla-Pazner, M. K. Gorny, and P. N. Nyambi. The implications of antigenic diversity for vaccine development. Immunol. Lett., 66:159-64, 1999. PubMed ID: 10203049. Show all entries for this paper.

Zwick2003a Michael B. Zwick, Robert Kelleher, Richard Jensen, Aran F. Labrijn, Meng Wang, Gerald V. Quinnan, Jr., Paul W. H. I. Parren, and Dennis R. Burton. A Novel Human Antibody against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp120 Is V1, V2, and V3 Loop Dependent and Helps Delimit the Epitope of the Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Immunoglobulin G1 b12. J. Virol., 77(12):6965-6978, Jun 2003. PubMed ID: 12768015. Show all entries for this paper.

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