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Broad HIV-1 Specific CTL Responses Reveal Extensive HLA Class I Binding Promiscuity of HIV-Derived, Optimally Defined CTL Epitopes

Nicole Frahm1 - Philip J.R. Goulder1 , 2 - Christian Brander1

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) in HIV infection

Together with neutralizing antibodies and virus specific T-helper cells, HIV specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) remain at the center of many vaccine development efforts despite the ongoing debate regarding their in vivo induction and function and their potential ability to provide effective protection from infection in vaccines. However, numerous reports support the important role that virus specific CTL responses may have in HIV infection and that their detailed characterization needs to continue. As in past years, we again have compiled an updated list of all optimal HIV derived CTL epitopes that have been described over the last 12 months. The total number of optimal CTL epitopes has now exceeded 200 and increasingly also includes epitopes identified in non-clade B infection and in individuals of non-Caucasian descent. Thus, the collective information on the specificity of these HIV directed responses is of growing relevance for vaccine development in populations most affected by the HIV epidemic and should facilitate further immune analyses in these mostly non-Caucasians ethnicities.

Broad CTL responses are not associated with HIV control

A number of laboratories, including ours, have in the past described the results from comprehensive CTL screening studies, in which overlapping peptide sets spanning the entire HIV genome are used in IFN-γ ELISpot assays (Novitsky2002,Draenert2004d,Frahm2004,Addo2003,Kiepiela2004,Cao2003a,Feeney2003,Sabbaj2003). While several reports show either a positive or a negative correlation between viral loads and the breadth or magnitude of these CTL responses, none of these recent studies have found any strong significant associations. Importantly, studies describing correlations have often been based on the analysis of CTL responses against a restricted number of proteins or even single epitopes using tetramer stainings and were often restricted to a relatively low number of subjects enrolled (Ogg1998,Edwards2002,Buseyne2002a,Buseyne2002b,Betts2001). The larger, more comprehensive studies including individuals at different stages of disease fail to see associations between CTL activity and viral loads (Frahm2004,Addo2003,Draenert2004d,Cao2003a,Feeney2003). Thus, it appears that either total CTL responses are not a correlate of immune protection, or the assays most widely applied do not reflect the number of CTL responses that actually do mediate effective in vivo control of viral replication. The latter may indeed play an important role as some of the most widely used approaches clearly have their limitations. Overcoming them may help to obtain a more accurate picture of the HIV specific CTL activity. For instance, recent studies from our laboratory show that the use of autologous test sequences yields more and stronger CTL responses to variable proteins compared to the use of consensus sequence based peptide sets (Altfeld2003). Thus, most studies may underestimate the true breadth of responses and may hide a potential association between CTL activity, viral loads and disease progression. This limitation could be overcome by testing an extensive number of individuals using autologous test sequences; an undertaking that, however, will be limited by the exuberant costs for autologous sequence peptide synthesis.

A further concern regards the use of overlapping peptide panels that span the entire expressed HIV genome. In most cases, these utilize peptides that are 15-18 amino acids in length and which overlap by either 10 or 11 amino acids. Recent studies by Draenert (Draenert2004b) indicate that the precise location of the optimal epitope within the overlapping peptide (OLP) significantly affects recognition of the OLP: if the epitope is located precisely at the C-terminal end of the OLP, it will be significantly better recognized than if located in the middle of the OLP. Recent studies in the SIV macaque model, where peptides can be synthesized that correspond exactly to the autologous virus sequence, indicate that even 15-mers overlapping by 11 amino acids fail to pick up a substantial proportion of the responses (Watkins et al., unpublished). The ultimate and ideal situation would be to use a panel of 11-mers overlapping by 10 amino acids, based on autologous virus sequence. The cost of such an enterprise is prohibitive, but for a limited number of subjects this exercise should perhaps be undertaken, as one becomes increasingly aware of the fact that the immunodominant CTL responses may not necessarily be the ones that are critical for immune control.

In addition, only a few different assays are currently being employed for the detection of virus specific CTL. To our knowledge, all optimal CTL epitopes listed in the present database have been identified either by assessing cytotoxic activity in a Cr51 release assay or by the induction of IFN-γ in Elispot or intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assays. While cytolytic function may be an important aspect of effective CTL, IFN-γ release may well be a surrogate for other functions but not occur in all HIV-specific cells. A number of laboratories have tackled these problems and established other assays, such as CD107 degranulation and perforin/granzyme release assays as alternative ways to assess CTL responses. Also, replication inhibition assays of the type first described by Yang et al. (Yang1997), in which CTL clones are co-cultured with HLA-matched CD4+ T cells infected with autologous virus clones, may provide a means to come closer to the situation in vivo. Such assays will help to address qualitative differences in the viral replication inhibition efficacy of CTL of different specificity and will also help to identify processing mutations that are hard to detect in other, non-replication based assays. The frequency of processing escape mutations is unknown but a recent number of descriptions of mutational processing escape mutations in HIV suggests that this is a mechanism of escape that has been much under-recognized (Yokomaku2004,Draenert2004c,Allen2004). Overall, these assays still need further adaptation and simplification until comprehensive responses can be measured on a single peptide level in a larger population of HIV infected individuals.

Finally, assessing total CTL responses by comprehensive screening may detect too many immunologically irrelevant responses and thus obscure a possible association between CTL activity and viral control. Indeed, there is compelling evidence that some single epitope-specific responses can control viral replication as viral escape in such epitopes is associated with increased viral loads and acceleration of disease progression (Draenert2004c,Cao2003b,Barouch2002,Goulder1997c,Friedrich2004,Allen2000,Kelleher2001,Klenerman2002,Leslie2004). Thus, besides single responses that appear to have the capacity to provide strong immune surveillance, the current assays may also detect many less efficient responses and thus hide a possible association between CTL activity and viral load. On the other hand, individuals with high viral loads and fast disease progression can well maintain strong CTL responses without evidence of affecting viral replication (Draenert2004d). In this study, the lack of control over viral replication could not be explained by sequence variation in the targeted regions of the autologous virus, indicating functional deficiencies specific to these individuals or responses. New data from our lab and other investigators suggest that the ability of HIV-epitope specific CTL to proliferate in response to antigen is lost in the course of infection, and that this defect could be associated with the loss of effective control over viral replication (Migueles2002) (and Lichterfeld et al., unpublished). Together, these studies suggest that at least some HIV specific CTL can exert effective replication control and that the often generalized description of ``functional deficiency of HIV specific CTL'' is likely an over-simplification.

Extensive HLA class I binding promiscuity of HIV derived optimal epitopes

Regardless of possible associations between CTL activity and viral loads, knowing the precise targets of these CTL is still a prerequisite for many other questions to be asked, such as viral evolution, genetic imprinting and their potential use in epitope-based vaccines. Furthermore, the well-defined epitope landscape can be used to address questions of antigen processing and epitope presentation. In a recent study, we have used the optimally defined CTL epitopes to address the degree of HLA class I binding promiscuity. Briefly, 100 HIV infected individuals of mainly non-Caucasian background were tested for CTL responses against almost 200 described, optimal HIV derived CTL epitopes, regardless of the individual's HLA type. Interestingly, only about 40% of all responses were detected in individuals who expressed the appropriate HLA class I allele. Another 20% of the responses were attributed to the presence of an allele that fell into the same HLA-supertype as the originally described restricting allele (for instance, an HLA-A3+ individual showing a positive response against an HLA-A11 restricted epitope). This left 40% of all responses to be restricted by alleles that do not share obvious similarities to the originally described allele or were, thus far at least, not grouped into the same HLA-supertype as the original allele. Although more detailed analyses will be required to confirm the precise length and anchor residues for the epitopes presented on alternative alleles, the data strongly suggest the presence of epitopes with wide HLA-class I binding promiscuity. This is supported by some of the epitopes included in the present update, for which presentation and ex vivo recognition was documented for up to four different HLA class I alleles (TL9 on B7, B42, B81 and Cw08). Furthermore, strong support for extensive epitope binding promiscuity is derived from the observation that CTL responses to certain regions of the viral genome, such as Gag and Nef, show strong clustering of responses (Frahm2004,Frahm2002a). In data now publicly available at the Los Alamos database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/immunology/hlatem/), we show that 72 of 150 individuals tested reacted to the very same overlapping 18-mer peptide in Nef. Since these individuals expressed widely diverse HLA types and the number of potential epitopes in a single 18-mer is limited, the data strongly suggest that at least some epitopes must be presented by multiple HLA class I alleles.

Implications for vaccine development and viral evolution studies

Clearly, the identification of CTL epitopes that can bind multiple HLA class I alleles will facilitate the selection of epitopes with an increased population coverage. However, it will also be important to assess potential functional differences between responses to the same epitopes presented on different alleles. This may be of special interest in cases where the epitopes are shared between HLA class I alleles differentially associated with slow or fast HIV disease progression. An example of this is the TL9 response restricted by HLA-B42 and B81. HLA-B81 is associated with low viral loads in the Durban population, whereas B42 is not (Goulder et al., unpublished). Sequencing of the virus indicates that escape mutations are selected in the B81-positive subjects in the region of the virus encoding the TL9 epitope, whereas this does not occur in the B42-positive subjects (Leslie et al., unpublished). Other examples include the epitope QW9, shared by HLA-B57 (slow) and HLA-B53 (fast disease progression). Using these epitopes, one may be able to address the role that the HLA class I molecule or the presented CTL epitope, respectively, play in determining the rate of disease progression. Finally, cross-binding epitopes may also impact the analyses of CTL escape patterns as allele-associated footprints may need to take into consideration other alleles with the ability to share CTL epitopes. Similarly, the assessment of a ``functional HLA homozygosity'' in which alleles that frequently share CTL epitopes are considered ``functionally homozygous'' may reveal additional insight into the mechanism by which genetically homozygous individuals show a faster disease progression compared to HLA heterozygous subjects (Carrington1999).

Acknowledgments

As every year, we would like to express our gratitude to the large number of researchers in the field who continuously contribute to this database. The mostly unpublished data added to this years update stemming from the AIDS Research Center at Mass. General Hospital have been largely funded by an NIH contract (#NO1-A1-15442) supporting HLA typing and HIV CTL epitope definition in non-Caucasian populations and non clade B HIV infection.

We very much welcome any criticism, comments and additions to this list since we are sure that some epitopes will unintentionally escape our attention, despite close monitoring of the literature. Please write or call us with any comments you may have at:

     
  Nicole Frahm   Christian Brander  
  phone: (617) 726-2648   phone: (617) 724-5789  
  FAX: (617) 726-4691   FAX: (617) 726-5411  
  nfrahm@partners.org  cbrander@partners.org  
  Philip J. R. Goulder   Bette Korber  
  phone: +44 (1865) 281884   phone: (505) 665-4453  
  FAX: +44 (1865) 281236   FAX: (505) 665-3493  
  philip.goulder@ndm.ox.ac.uk  btk@lanl.gov  

Table of optimal HIV-1 CTL epitopes

Table 1: Best defined HIV CTL epitopes.
HLA Protein AA Sequence Reference
A*0101 (A1) gp160 787-795 RRGWEVLKY Cao2002
         
A*02 (A2) RT 127-135 YTAFTIPSV Draenert2004a
         
A*0201 (A2)    
2   6  C
Falk1991,Barouch1995
         1° anchor
L      L
 
     
M      V
 
    2° anchor
        V  
 
A*0201 (A2) p17 77-85 SLYNTVATL Parker1994,Johnson1991,Parker1992
A*0201 (A2) p1 1-10 FLGKIWPSYK Yu2002b
A*0201 (A2) RT 33-41 ALVEICTEM Haas1998,Haas1999
A*0201 (A2) RT 179-187 VIYQYMDDL Harrer1996a
A*0201 (A2) RT 309-317 ILKEPVHGV Tsomides1991,Walker1989
A*0201 (A2) Vpr 59-67 AIIRILQQL Altfeld2001a,Altfeld2001b
A*0201 (A2) gp160 311-320 RGPGRAFVTI Alexander-Miller1996
A*0201 (A2) gp160 813-822 SLLNATDIAV Dupuis1995
A*0201 (A2) Nef 136-145 PLTFGWCYKL Maier1999,Haas1996
A*0201 (A2) Nef 180-189 VLEWRFDSRL Maier1999,Haas1996
         
A*0202 (A2)    
2      C
Barouch1995
     
L      L
 
     
V
 
A*0202 (A2) p17 77-85 SLYNTVATL Goulder1999
         
A*0205 (A2) p17 77-85 SLYNTVATL Goulder1999
A*0205 (A2) gp41 335-343 RIRQGLERA Sabbaj2003
         
A*0207 (A2) p24 164-172 YVDRFYKTL Currier2002
A*0301 (A3) p17 18-26 KIRLRPGGK Harrer1996b
A*0301 (A3) p17 20-28 RLRPGGKKK Culmann1999,Lewinsohn1999b,Goulder1997b,Wilkes1999b
A*0301 (A3) p17 20-29 RLRPGGKKKY Goulder2000b
A*0301 (A3) RT 33-43 ALVEICTEMEK Haas1998,Haas1999
A*0301 (A3) RT 73-82 KLVDFRELNK Yu2002a
A*0301 (A3) RT 93-101 GIPHPAGLK Yu2002a
A*0301 (A3) RT 158-166 AIFQSSMTK Threlkeld1997
A*0301 (A3) RT 269-277 QIYPGIKVR Yu2002a
A*0301 (A3) RT 356-366 RMRGAHTNDVK Yu2002a
A*0301 (A3) Integrase 179-188 AVFIHNFKRK Yu2002a
A*0301 (A3) Vif 17-26 RIRTWKSLVK Altfeld2001a,Yu2002a
A*0301 (A3) Vif 28-36 HMYISKKAK Yu2002a
A*0301 (A3) Vif 158-168 KTKPPLPSVKK Yu2002a
A*0301 (A3) Rev 57-66 ERILSTYLGR Yu2002a,Addo2002a
A*0301 (A3) gp160 37-46 TVYYGVPVWK Johnson1994a
A*0301 (A3) gp160 770-780 RLRDLLLIVTR Takahashi1991
A*0301 (A3) Nef 73-82 QVPLRPMTYK Culmann1991,Koenig1990
A*0301 (A3) Nef 84-92 AVDLSHFLK Yu2002a
         
A*1101 (A11)    
2      C
Zhang1993,Rammensee1995
     
K
 
     
V       
 
     
I       
 
     
F       
 
     
Y       
 
A*1101 (A11) p17 84-92 TLYCVHQRI Harrer1998
A*1101 (A11) p24 217-227 ACQGVGGPGHK Sipsas1997
A*1101 (A11) RT 158-166 AIFQSSMTK Zhang1993,Threlkeld1997,Johnson1994b
A*1101 (A11) RT 341-350 IYQEPFKNLK Culmann1999
A*1101 (A11) RNase 80-88 QIIEQLIKK Fukada1999
A*1101 (A11) Integrase 179-188 AVFIHNFKRK Fukada1999
A*1101 (A11) gp160 199-207 SVITQACPK Fukada1999
A*1101 (A11) Nef 73-82 QVPLRPMTYK Buseyne1999
A*1101 (A11) Nef 75-82 PLRPMTYK Culmann1991
A*1101 (A11) Nef 84-92 AVDLSHFLK Culmann1991
A*23 (A23) gp41 74-82 RYLKDQQLL Cao2003a
         
A*2402 (A24)    
2      C
Maier1994
     
Y      I
 
     
L
 
     
F
 
A*2402 (A24) p17 28-36 KYKLKHIVW Ikeda-Moore1998,Lewinsohn1999a
A*2402 (A24) p24 162-172 RDYVDRFFKTL Dorrell1999,Rowland-Jones1999
A*2402 (A24) gp160 52-61 LFCASDAKAY Shankar1996,Lieberman1992
A*2402 (A24) gp160 585-593 RYLKDQQLL Dai1992
A*2402 (A24) Nef 134-141 RYPLTFGW Ikeda-Moore1998,Goulder1997a
         
A*2501 (A25) p24 13-23 QAISPRTLNAW Kurane1999
A*2501 (A25) p24 71-80 ETINEEAAEW vanBaalen1996,Klenerman1996
         
A*2601 (A26)    
12   6  C
Dumrese1998
     
V       Y
 
     
T       F
 
     
I       
 
     
L       
 
     
F       
 
     
 D    I  
 
     
 E    L  
 
     
V  
 
A*2601 (A26) p24 35-43 EVIPMFSAL Goulder1996a
A*2601 (A26) Pol 604-612 ETKLGKAGY Sabbaj2003
         
A*29 (A29) Nef 120-128 YFPDWQNYT Draenert2004b
         
A*2902 (A29) gp160 209-217 SFEPIPIHY Altfeld2000a
A*3002 (A30)    
12        C
Rammensee1999
     
 Y        Y
 
     
F         
 
     
L         
 
     
V         
 
     
R          
 
A*3002 (A30) p17 76-86 RSLYNTVATLY Goulder2001
A*3002 (A30) RT 173-181 KQNPDIVIY Goulder2001
A*3002 (A30) RT 263-271 KLNWASQIY Goulder2001
A*3002 (A30) RT 356-365 RMRGAHTNDV Sabbaj2003
A*3002 (A30) Integrase 219-227 KIQNFRVYY Rodriguez2004,Sabbaj2003
A*3002 (A30) gp160 704-712 IVNRNRQGY Goulder2001
A*3002 (A30) gp120 310-318 HIGPGRAFY Sabbaj2003
A*3002 (A30) gp41 283-291 KYCWNLLQY Goulder2001
A*3101 (A31)    
2        C
Rammensee1999,Falk1994
     
R
 
     
L         
 
     
V         
 
     
Y         
 
     
F         
 
A*3101 (A31) gp160 770-780 RLRDLLLIVTR Safrit1994a,Safrit1994b
A*3201 (A32) RT 392-401 PIQKETWETW Harrer1996b
A*3201 (A32) gp160 419-427 RIKQIINMW Harrer1996b
A*3303 (A33) gp41 187-196 VFAVLSIVNR Hossain2001
A*3303 (A33) gp41 320-327 EVAQRAYR Hossain2001
A*3303 (A33) Vpu 29-37 EYRKILRQR Addo2002b
A*3303 (A33) Nef 133-141 TRYPLTFGW Cao2002
A*6801 (A68) Tat 39-49 ITKGLGISYGR Oxenius2002
A*6801 (A68) Vpr 52-62 DTWAGVEAIIR Sabbaj2004
A*6802 (A68) Protease 3-11 ITLWQRPLV Rowland-Jones1999
A*6802 (A68) Protease 30-38 DTVLEEWNL Rowland-Jones1999
A*6802 (A68) gp160 777-785 IVTRIVELL Wilkes1999a
A*7401 (A19) Protease 3-11 ITLWQRPLV Rowland-Jones1999
B*07 (B7) p24 84-92 HPVHAGPIA Yu2002a
         
B*0702 (B7)    
123     C
Rammensee1999,Englehard1993
     
P      L
 
     
A R     F
 
     
R K      
 
B*0702 (B7) p24 16-24 SPRTLNAWV Lewinsohn1999a
B*0702 (B7) p24 48-56 TPQDLNTML Wilson1999a,Wilson1997,Jin2000,Wilkes1999c
B*0702 (B7) p24 223-231 GPGHKARVL Goulder1999
B*0702 (B7) Vpr 34-42 FPRIWLHGL Altfeld2001a
B*0702 (B7) Vif 48-57 HPRVSSEVHI Altfeld2001a
B*0702 (B7) gp160 298-307 RPNNNTRKSI Safrit1994b
B*0702 (B7) gp160 843-851 IPRRIRQGL Wilkes1999b
B*0702 (B7) Nef 68-77 FPVTPQVPLR Maier1999,Haas1996
B*0702 (B7) Nef 68-76 FPVTPQVPL Bauer1997,Frahm2002b
B*0702 (B7) Nef 71-79 TPQVPLRPM Goulder1999
B*0702 (B7) Nef 77-85 RPMTYKAAL Bauer1997
B*0702 (B7) Nef 106-115 RQDILDLWIY Goulder1999
B*0702 (B7) Nef 128-137 TPGPGVRYPL Haas1996,Culmann-Penciolelli1994
         
B*0801 (B8)    
23 5   C
Sutton1993,Hill1992,DiBrino1994b
     
K K   L
 
     
R    
 
     
PR     
 
     
L      
 
B*0801 (B8) p17 24-32 GGKKKYKLK Goulder1997d,Rowland-Jones1993
B*0801 (B8) p17 74-82 ELRSLYNTV Goulder1997d
B*0801 (B8) p24 128-135 EIYKRWII Sutton1993,Goulder1997d
B*0801 (B8) p24 197-205 DCKTILKAL Sutton1993
B*0801 (B8) RT 18-26 GPKVKQWPL Sutton1993,Walker1989
B*0801 (B8) gp160 2-10 RVKEKYQHL Sipsas1997
B*0801 (B8) gp160 586-593 YLKDQQLL Shankar1996,Johnson1992
B*0801 (B8) Nef 13-20 WPTVRERM Goulder1997d
B*0801 (B8) Nef 90-97 FLKEKGGL Price1997,Culmann-Penciolelli1994
B*14 (B14) p15 42-50 CRAPRKKGC Yu2002b
B*1402 (B14)    
23 5   C
DiBrino1994a
     
R  R   L
 
     
K  H    
 
     
L      
 
     
Y      
 
     
F      
 
B*1402 (B14) p24 166-174 DRFYKTLRA Harrer1996b
B*1402 (B14) gp160 584-592 ERYLKDQQL Johnson1992
         
B*1501 (B62)    
2      C
 
     
Q      Y
Barber1997
     
L      F
Barber1997
     
M       
Barber1997
B*1501 (B62) p24 137-145 GLNKIVRMY Johnson1991,Goulder1999
B*1501 (B62) RT 260-271 LVGKLNWASQIY Johnson1999
B*1501 (B62) RT 309-318 ILKEPVHGVY Johnson1991,Johnson1999
B*1501 (B62) Nef 19-27 RMRRAEPAA Cao2002
B*1501 (B62) Nef 117-127 TQGYFPDWQNY Culmann1999
         
B*1503 (B72) Integrase 185-194 FKRKGGIGGY Honeyborne2003
B*1503 (B72) Integrase 263-271 RKAKIIRDY Cao2003a
B*1503 (B72) Tat 38-47 FQTKGLGISY Novitsky2001
B*1503 (B72) Pol 651-660 VTDSQYALGI Sabbaj2003
B*1503 (B72) Nef 183-191 WRFDSRLAF Cao2002
         
B*1510 (B71) Gag p24 61-69 GHQAAMQML Day2003
B*1510 (B71) Vif 79-87 WHLGHVSI Honeyborne2003
         
B*1516 (B63)    
2      9
Barber1997,Seeger1998
     
T      Y
 
     
S      I
 
     
V
 
     
F
 
B*1516 (B63) gp160 375-383 SFNCGGEFF Wilson1999a,Wilson1997
B*1801 (B18) p24 161-170 FRDYVDRFYK Ogg1998
B*1801 (B18) Vif 102-111 LADQLIHLHY Altfeld2001a
B*1801 (B18) Nef 135-143 YPLTFGWCY Culmann1991,Culmann-Penciolelli1994
B*27 (B27) Vpr 31-39 VRHFPRIWL Addo2004
B*2703 (B27) p24 131-140 RRWIQLGLQK Rowland-Jones1999,Rowland-Jones1998
B*2705 (B27)    
12       C
Jardetzky1991,Rammensee1995
     
R       L
 
     
F
 
     
K        K
 
     
R        R
 
     
G        I
 
     
A         
 
B*2705 (B27) p17 19-27 IRLRPGGKK McKinney1999,Lewinsohn1999a
B*2705 (B27) p24 131-140 KRWIILGLNK Buseyne1993,Nixon1988,Goulder1997c
B*2705 (B27) gp160 786-795 GRRGWEALKY Lieberman1999,Lieberman1992
B*2705 (B27) Nef 105-114 RRQDILDLWI Goulder1997b
B*3501 (B35)    
2      C
Rammensee1999,Hill1992
     
P      Y
 
     
A      F
 
     
V      M
 
     
S      L
 
     
I
 
B*3501 (B35) p17 36-44 WASRELERF Goulder1997a
B*3501 (B35) p17 124-132 NSSKVSQNY Rowland-Jones1995
B*3501 (B35) p24 122-130 PPIPVGDIY Rowland-Jones1995
B*3501 (B35) p24 122-130 NPVPVGNIY Rowland-Jones1995
B*3501 (B35) RT 107-115 TVLDVGDAY Wilson1999b,Wilkes1999b
B*3501 (B35) RT 118-127 VPLDEDFRKY Shiga1996,Sipsas1997
B*3501 (B35) RT 175-183 NPDIVIYQY Shiga1996,Sipsas1997
B*3501 (B35) RT 175-183 HPDIVIYQY Rowland-Jones1995
B*3501 (B35) gp160 42-52 VPVWKEATTTL Wilkes1999b
B*3501 (B35) gp160 78-86 DPNPQEVVL Shiga1996
B*3501 (B35) gp160 606-614 TAVPWNASW Johnson1994a
B*3501 (B35) Nef 74-81 VPLRPMTY Culmann1991,Culmann-Penciolelli1994
B*3701 (B37)    
2      C
Falk1993
     
D      F
 
     
E      M
 
     
L
 
     
I
 
B*3701 (B37) Nef 120-128 YFPDWQNYT Culmann1999,Culmann1991
B*3801 (B38) Vif 79-87 WHLGQGVSI Sabbaj2004
B*3801 (B38) gp160 104-112 MHEDIISLW Cao2002
         
B*3901 (B39)    
2      C
Falk1995a
     
R      L
 
     
H       
 
B*3901 (B39) p24 61-69 GHQAAMQML Kurane1999
         
B*4001 (B60)    
2      C
Falk1995b
     
E      L
 
B*4001 (B60) p17 92-101 IEIKDTKEAL Altfeld2000b
B*4001 (B60) p24 44-52 SEGATPQDL Altfeld2000b
B*4001 (B60) p6 33-41 KELYPLTSL Yu2002b
B*4001 (B60) RT 5-12 IETVPVKL Draenert2004a
B*4001 (B60) RT 202-210 IEELRQHLL Altfeld2000b
B*4001 (B60) gp160 805-814 QELKNSAVSL Altfeld2000b
B*4001 (B60) Nef 37-45 LEKHGAITS Draenert2004a
B*4001 (B60) Nef 92-100 KEKGGLEGL Altfeld2000b
         
B*4002 (B61) p17 11-19 GELDRWEKI Sabbaj2003
B*4002 (B61) p24 70-78 KETINEEAA Sabbaj2003
B*4002 (B61) p24 78-86 AEWDRVHPV Sabbaj2003
B*4002 (B61) p15 64-71 TERQANFL Sabbaj2003
B*4002 (B61) Nef 92-100 KEKGGLEGL Altfeld2000b,Sabbaj2003
         
B*42 (B42) Integrase 260-268 VPRRKAKII Kiepiela2002
         
B*4201 (B42) p24 48-56 TPQDLNTML Goulder2000a
B*4201 (B42) RT 271-279 YPGIKVRQL Wilkes1999b
B*4201 (B42) Nef 128-137 TPGPGVRYPL Goulder1999
B*44 (B44) Protease 34-42 EEMNLPGRW Rodriguez2004
         
B*4402 (B44)    
2        C
Rammensee1999
     
E        F
 
     
Y
 
B*4402 (B44) p24 162-172 RDYVDRFYKTL Ogg1998
B*4402 (B44) p24 174-184 AEQASQDVKNW Lewinsohn1999a
B*4402 (B44) gp160 31-40 AENLWVTVYY Borrow1997
         
B*4415 (B12) p24 28-36 EEKAFSPEV Bird2002
         
B*4501 (B45) Gag-p2 1-10 AEAMSQVTNS Sabbaj2004
         
B*50 (B50) Nef 37-45 LEKHGAITS Draenert2004a
         
B*51 (B51) Vif 57-66 IPLGDAKLII Bansal2004
B*51 (B51) Vpr 29-37 EAVRHFPRI Cao2003a
         
B*5101 (B51)    
2      C
Falk1995a
     
A      F
 
     
P      I
 
     
G       
 
B*5101 (B51) RT 42-50 EKEGKISKI Haas1998,Haas1999
B*5101 (B51) RT 128-135 TAFTIPSI Sipsas1997
B*5101 (B51) gp160 416-424 LPCRIKQII Tomiyama1999
         
B*5201 (B52)    
2     C
Rammensee1999
     
I
 
     
V
 
     
Q      
 
B*5201 (B52) p24 143-150 RMYSPTSI Wilson1997,Wilkes1999b
         
B*53 (B53) Nef 135-143 YPLTFGWCF Kiepiela2002
B*5301 (B53)    
2      C
 
     
P      L
Hill1992
B*5301 (B53) p24 48-56 TPYDINQML Gotch1993
B*5301 (B53) p24 176-184 QASQEVKNW Buseyne1999,Buseyne1996,Buseyne1997
B*5301 (B53) Tat 2-11 EPVDPRLEPW Addo2001
B*5301 (B53) Nef 135-143 YPLTFGWCY Sabbaj2003
         
B*5501 (B55)    
2       C
Barber1995
     
P        
 
     
A
 
B*5501 (B55) gp160 42-51 VPVWKEATTT Shankar1996,Lieberman1999
         
B*57 (B57) Integrase 123-132 STTVKAACWW Rodriguez2004,Addo2004
B*57 (B57) Nef 116-124 HTQGYFPDW Draenert2002
         
B*5701 (B57)    
12      C
Barber1997
     
A      F
 
     
T      W
 
     
S       
 
     
K       Y
 
B*5701 (B57) p24 15-23 ISPRTLNAW Johnson1991,Goulder1996b
B*5701 (B57) p24 30-40 KAFSPEVIPMF Goulder1996b
B*5701 (B57) p24 108-118 TSTLQEQIGWF Goulder1996b
B*5701 (B57) p24 176-184 QASQEVKNW Goulder1996b
B*5701 (B57) RT 244-252 IVLPEKDSW vanderBurg1997,Hay1999
B*5701 (B57) Integrase 173-181 KTAVQMAVF Goulder1996b,Hay1999
B*5701 (B57) Vpr 30-38 AVRHFPRIW Altfeld2001a
B*5701 (B57) Vif 31-39 ISKKAKGWF Altfeld2001a
B*5701 (B57) Rev 14-23 KAVRLIKFLY Addo2001
B*5701 (B57) Nef 116-125 HTQGYFPDWQ Culmann1991
B*5701 (B57) Nef 120-128 YFPDWQNYT Culmann1991
         
B57 (B57) Nef 116-124 HTQGYFPDW Draenert2002
         
B*5703 (B57) p24 30-37 KAFSPEVI Goulder2000b
B*5703 (B57) p24 30-40 KAFSPEVIPMF Goulder2000b
B*5801 (B58)    
12       C
Falk1995b,Barber1997
     
A       F
 
     
T       W
 
     
S        
 
     
K         
 
     
V         
 
     
I         
 
B*5801 (B58) p24 108-117 TSTVEEQQIW Bertoletti1998
B*5801 (B58) p24 108-117 TSTLQEQIGW Goulder1996b
B*5801 (B58) RT 375-383 IAMESIVIW Kiepiela2002
B*5801 (B58) Rev 14-23 KAVRLIKFLY Addo2001
B*81 (B81) Pol 715-723 LFLDGIDKA Addo2002a
B*8101 (B81) p24 48-56 TPQDLNTML Goulder2000a
B*8101 (B81) Vpr 34-42 FPRIWLHGL Altfeld2001a
Cw*0102 (Cw1)    
23    C
Barber1997
     
A     L
 
     
L      
 
     
P     
 
Cw*0102 (Cw1) p24 36-43 VIPMFSAL Goulder1997a
Cw*03 (Cw03) Nef 83-91 AALDLSHFL Draenert2004a
Cw*0303 (Cw9) Gag p24 164-172 YVDRFFKTL Honeyborne2003
Cw*0304 (Cw10) Gag p24 164-172 YVDRFFKTL Honeyborne2003
Cw*0304 (Cw10) gp41 46-54 RAIEAQQHL Trocha2002,Currier2002
Cw*0401 (Cw4)    
2   6  C
Falk1994
     
Y      L
 
     
P      F
 
     
F      M
 
     
V   
 
     
I   
 
     
L   
 
Cw*0401 (Cw4) gp160 375-383 SFNCGGEFF Johnson1993,Wilson1997
Cw*05 (Cw05) Gag p24 174-185 AEQASQEVKNWM Draenert2004a
         
Cw*07 (Cw7) Nef 105-115 KRQEILDLWVY Kiepiela2002
Cw*07 (Cw7) Nef 105-115 RRQDILDLWIY Yu2002a
         
Cw*0802 (Cw8) p24 48-56 TPQDLNTML Goulder2000a
Cw*0802 (Cw8) Nef 83-91 AAVDLSHFL Cao2003a
         
Cw*12 (Cw12) Tat 30-37 CCFHCQVC Nixon1999,Cao2003a
         
Cw*15 (Cw15) gp41 46-54 RAIEAQQHL Trocha2002

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Affiliation

 1
Partners AIDS Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA
 2
The Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Oxford, UK
 
In HIV Immunology and HIV/SIV Vaccine Databases 2003. Bette T. M. Korber, Christian Brander, Barton F. Haynes, Richard Koup, John P. Moore, Bruce D. Walker, and David I. Watkins, editors. Publisher: Los Alamos National Laboratory, Theoretical Biology and Biophysics, Los Alamos, New Mexico. LA-UR 04-8162. pp. 3-24.


2005-02-27
last modified: Mon Apr 19 14:41 2010


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